Research in Learning Technology 2021-08-16T14:09:13-07:00 ALT journal team Open Journal Systems Teaching social skills to students with autism spectrum disorder through augmented, virtual and mixed reality 2021-08-06T13:37:59-07:00 Maggie A. Mosher Adam C. Carreon <p>This systematic literature review was conducted to explore the social validity of augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and mixed reality (MR) as a means of providing social skill instruction to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-one articles met the inclusion criteria, including five studies utilizing AR and the remaining 36 utilizing VR for social skill interventions. No studies implemented MR. The targeted skills of the studies included emotion recognition, relationship skills, social awareness, cooperation, and executive functioning. The intervention was considered effective in 63% of studies, not effective in 10% of studies, and mixed results in 27% of studies. The social validity indicators reported by researchers ranged from two to 14 of 17 determined categories. Findings indicate the primary socially valid reasons for utilizing AR/VR for social skill instruction were high student motivation toward the intervention and a positive attitude toward the technology. Findings indicate that increasing the role of parents, educators, and students as both social skill selectors and treatment agents and adding valid and reliable skill measures may improve the effects of an intervention. Sustainability may increase by providing training to both treatment agents and participants. AR has the potential to improve generalization and VR provides a practice environment for performance deficits. Combining these technologies may provide a more effective social skill intervention.</p> 2021-08-06T13:37:16-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Maggie A. Mosher, Adam C. Carreon Increasing the attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (ARCS) of students through interactive science learning multimedia 2021-08-16T14:09:13-07:00 Herianto Insih Wilujeng <p>The use of interactive multimedia has the potential to create a high-quality learning environment. The key elements of various media, user control over information delivery and interactivity can be used to improve the learning process by creating an integrated learning environment. This study aims to determine the increase in students’ attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (ARCS) before and after using interactive science learning multimedia. This study collected data from 30 students aged 12–13 years from a junior high school in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia. Data collection was done using learning motivation questionnaires. Data analysis techniques used paired sample&nbsp;<em>t</em>-test. The results of this study are that the learning motivation aspects of ARCS after using interactive science learning multimedia have increased significantly. However, the relevance aspect of students’ learning motivation did not increase significantly.</p> 2021-08-13T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Herianto, Insih Wilujeng Exploring the characteristics of adults’ online learning activities: a case study of EdX online institute 2021-08-04T14:02:52-07:00 Yuewei Shi Xi Lin <p>Online learning has become a prevailing trend among adult learners. Therefore, this study investigated the learning time preference and the relationship between the course completion and learning activities among adult learners based on data from one online learning platform. Results indicate that a periodical fluctuation of participating online course study exists among adult learners. Additionally, the activity of posting on the discussion board is a main learning activity factor that influences their online course completion. It is expected that this study would help online learning system designers, education administrators and instructors to better understand the characteristics of adult learners and their learning activities to provide better accessibility and flexibility in online learning environments for them.</p> 2021-08-04T13:58:35-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Yuewei Shi, Xi Lin Learning to teach mathematics with robots: Developing the ‘T’ in technological pedagogical content knowledge 2021-06-14T08:07:05-07:00 Shelli Casler-Failing <p>A multiple case study was conducted to investigate how Lego robotics instruction incorporated into a middle grades mathematics methods course could inform pre-service teachers’ (PSTs) TPACK through the lens of Social Constructivist Theory. The qualitative data analysis revealed that when instruction on Lego robotics technology is integrated into semester long mathematics methods courses, PSTs are able to improve their TPACK knowledge in regard to the robotics. Overall, the findings suggest instruction of educational technology tools should be incorporated into methods courses over a longer duration of time, and in depth, to better support the development of PSTs’ TPACK. To meet the demands of the teacher shortages while simultaneously supporting the needs of school districts, this research provides preliminary evidence of the need to incorporate content-specific technology into all methods courses.</p> 2021-06-11T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Shelli Casler-Failing A Disruptive Innovation perspective on students’ opinions of online assessment 2021-05-28T22:04:22-07:00 Michael Flavin <p>This article analyses students’ thoughts and feelings about online assessment. This article uses Disruptive Innovation theory as a lens through which to analyse students’ responses to online assessment, in a case study of a Leadership course. The sources of data for this article comprise annual course evaluation surveys, a one-off assessment survey and a focus group. Qualitative content analysis with a directed approach is used to analyse the data. The results show students are capable of undertaking a range of online assessments but are, in general, reluctant to utilise the innovative possibilities of different forms of online assessment. This article adds to our understanding of online assessment by placing it within a distinct theoretical framework, offering explanations for why students may not be seeking-out innovative forms of assessment.</p> 2021-05-28T22:03:35-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Michael Flavin The Development of an Integrated Scale of Technology Use in Physics 2021-04-27T19:47:59-07:00 Fikret Korur Sevda Yerdelen-Damar Havva Sağlam <p>In this study, the Integrated Scale of Technology Use in Physics (ISTUP) was developed to determine students’ frequency of technology use, their perceptions about the effects of technology use on physics interest and achievement, and their preferences of technological tools and applications in learning physics. The scale was administered two different times to 670 high school students in total who took physics courses. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to validate the scale. The results of the study suggest that the ISTUP is a valid and reliable scale. Students’ frequency of technology use in learning physics corresponded to ‘sometimes’. Students perceived that technology use had slightly positive effect on their interest and achievement. Findings regarding the interrelations between students’ preference for technological tools and applications were also discussed.</p> 2021-04-27T19:43:28-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Fikret Korur, Sevda Yerdelen-Damar, Havva Sağlam Parental involvement, learning participation and online learning commitment of adolescent learners during the COVID-19 lockdown 2021-04-08T17:44:00-07:00 Kehinde Clement Lawrence Olubusayo Victor Fakuade <p>During the escalating coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, attempting to contain its spread, a large number of educational institutions shut down face-to-face teaching and learning activities globally due to a complete lockdown. This lockdown revealed emerging vulnerabilities of education systems in the low- and middle-income countries of the world, with Nigeria being no exception. Given these concerns, this research study assessed parental involvement, learning participation and the commitment to online learning of adolescent learners during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria. An online survey questionnaire was employed to examine the level of online learning commitment and the contributory roles of each of the factors to online learning commitment of adolescent learners. In total, 1407 adolescents (male = 38.8%; female 61.2%) aged between 12 and 20 years (mean = 15: SD = 4.24) responded to the online survey, which was open for 2 months. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency distribution and inferential statistics of multiple regression. The findings revealed that the commitment level of adolescent learners to online learning was high. The findings further yielded a coefficient of&nbsp;<em>R</em>&nbsp;= 0.439 and&nbsp;<em>R</em><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;= 0.192 variance in the prediction of the outcome measure. Parental involvement contributed 32% (β = 0.322,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05) and learning participation contributed 23% (β = 0.234,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.05) towards online learning. The study concludes that parental involvement and learning participation played a significant and positive role in the commitment of adolescent learners towards online learning during the COVID-19 lockdown in Nigeria. The authors suggest that parents be encouraged to synergise with the digitalised revolution, while the need for further in-depth research on the subject is emphasised in the suggestions for future research.</p> 2021-04-08T17:43:05-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kehinde Clement Lawrence, Olubusayo Victor Fakuade Improving student and faculty communication: the impact of texting and electronic feedback on building relationships and the perception of care 2021-03-22T20:48:37-07:00 Jennie M. Carr Karen Santos Rogers Gibbs Kanyongo <p>Students perceive care as a quality of highly effective faculty, and building positive relationships is essential to a successful college experience. However, many college students report never having developed caring relationships with faculty. We propose faculty have an opportunity to use technology to help build caring relationships in an effort to improve overall academic success. The majority of research on student–faculty interaction has primarily focused on determining what kinds of interactions students have with faculty. The aim of this study was to explore students’ perceptions of care and the role safe texting and electronic feedback played in building student–faculty relationships. A mixed-methods approach was used with college student participants (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 307) to answer the following research questions: (1) What actions by faculty constitute “caring”? (2) What role does technology play in students feeling “cared for”? The findings indicate that safe texting platforms and electronic feedback had a positive impact by increasing accessibility and direct contact.</p> 2021-03-22T20:44:13-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jennie M. Carr, Karen Santos Rogers, Gibbs Kanyongo Facilitating peer-led group research through virtual collaboration spaces: an exploratory research study 2021-03-05T20:56:37-08:00 Richard Walker Setareh Chong James Chong <p>Peer-led group learning is a variation of collaborative learning and is based on ‘small groups of students meeting regularly with a peer – one who has additional expertise in the subject matter – to work on problems collaboratively’ (Pazos, Micari, and Light 2010). In this study, we explored how a Slack team environment could be used in a blended course design to support students working remotely on individual research projects, helping them in collaborative trouble-shooting and problem-solving activities with their ‘near peer’. We drew on lessons learned from an initial trial (2017–2018 cohort) to inform a revised peer-led research design (2018–2019 cohort).</p> <p>Our findings demonstrate the potential of collaborative platforms such as Slack to support near-peer learning, providing distinct channels for questioning, ideas sharing and agile problem-solving support in response to individual queries. The peer-led support contributed to high levels of engagement with the project work and deeper learning, helping less confident students to learn from group members and achieve positive outcomes in their own project work. We discuss the necessary conditions for effective peer-led learning to take place within a virtual space – identifying the clear communication of instructional roles, socialisation of students and responsiveness of near peers as factors influencing the adoption of the targeted learning methods – which we addressed in our revised peer-led design.</p> 2021-03-05T20:50:55-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Richard Walker, Setareh Chong, James Chong Introducing augmented reality in early childhood literacy learning 2021-02-12T09:12:37-08:00 Zilong Pan Mary López Chenglu Li Min Liu <p>Augmented reality (AR) as an emerging technology has gradually been incorporated into educational contexts; however, the cases that incorporate AR into early childhood contexts are underrepresented and especially scant in the literacy domain. Aiming to measure the impact of AR on early childhood learning and motivation in the literacy domain, this study brought an application into six pre-kindergarten classrooms by introducing three experimental classrooms to an AR centre while others engaged with a two-dimensional (2D) version of the same material. Bayesian analysis revealed that rapid letter naming rates grew for all children involved in the study. It increased by 6.28% among children in the experimental AR group and 3.35% in the control 2D group. Growth in rates of motivation was similar among experimental (11.5%) and control (10.9%) groups. These findings suggest that three-dimensional images of letters might help with rapid letter naming skills, and animations available in both versions may be the reason of increases in motivation. Teacher interviews presented positive views towards AR, and instructional implications were provided by teachers for incorporating the technology into early childhood classrooms.</p> 2021-02-12T09:09:58-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Zilong Pan, Mary López, Chenglu Li, Min Liu Content-specific differences in Padlet perception for collaborative learning amongst undergraduate students 2021-02-10T18:27:59-08:00 Kosha J. Mehta Isabelle Miletich Michael Detyna <p>Collaborative learning offers benefits but there is insufficient information on how students perceive specific digital tools supporting collaborative learning and whether there are content-related differences in students’ perceptions. Here, we utilised Padlet to mediate collaborative learning amongst undergraduate students from two distinct disciplines, Dentistry and Bioscience to examine students’ perceptions of Padlet-mediated learning and identify any content-specific differences. Data distribution was assessed via Shapiro–Wilk test, Mann–Whitney U test was used to assess distribution of responses and correlations were studied via Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (ρ). Data revealed that majority of students across both cohorts perceived Padlet as easy to use and beneficial to learning. Dentistry students perceived Padlet to be more beneficial to learning and easier to use than Bioscience students (<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01). Most Bioscience students liked to undertake collaborative learning via Padlet, whereas most Dentistry students felt more confident to ask questions and better understood content via Padlet. In the Bioscience cohort, perceived benefit-to-learning strongly correlated (ρ = 0.75;&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01) with fondness to use Padlet, whereas in the Dentistry cohort, it moderately correlated (ρ = 0.5;&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.01) with better understanding of subject content. Thematic analysis of students’ textual responses revealed anonymity, peer-learning and engagement as key benefits. Thus, this study strengthened the evidence for using Padlet for collaborative learning in a wider context. Moreover, it uncovered significant disparities in students’ perceptions of the tool, when used to foster learning of different subject contents.</p> 2021-02-10T18:27:31-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kosha J. Mehta, Isabelle Miletich, Michael Detyna Digital media assignments in undergraduate science education: an evidence-based approach 2021-02-05T13:08:51-08:00 Jorge Reyna <p>Digital media assignments empower students to become co-creators of knowledge rather than passive consumers of content. The Internet explosion and the affordability of digital technologies and devices such as smartphones, tablets and action cameras have created opportunities to use digital media in the classroom. This article aims to present an evidence-based approach to help educators to design, implement and evaluate digital media assignments in the classroom. For this purpose, four theoretical models were tested to inform the design of digital media assignments in undergraduate science education. These models helped to identify the student training in digital media needed, develop effective marking rubrics, and inform the design, implementation and evaluation of digital media assessment tasks. Trials were conducted in Spring 2016 (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 458) and Autumn 2017 (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 1329), respectively. Data collection used a mixed-methods approach, including a qualitative survey, open-ended questions, group contribution data and marks attained. Data analysis showed positive outcomes of the systematic implementation of digital media assignments. In conclusion, students enjoyed the support they received, being creative, working in groups and learning with digital media. To date, this intervention is one of the most comprehensive and practical approaches to digital media assignments in the classroom, which has been undertaken.</p> 2021-02-05T13:07:45-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jorge Reyna Selecting student-authored questions for summative assessments 2021-02-03T15:11:58-08:00 Alice Huang Dale Hancock Matthew Clemson Giselle Yeo Dylan Harney Paul Denny Gareth Denyer <p>Production of high-quality multiple-choice questions (MCQs) for both formative and summative assessments is a time-consuming task requiring great skill, creativity and insight. The transition to online examinations, with the concomitant exposure of previously tried-and-tested MCQs, exacerbates the challenges of question production and highlights the need for innovative solutions. Several groups have shown that it is practical to leverage the student cohort to produce a very large number of syllabus-aligned MCQs for study banks. Although student-generated questions are well suited for formative feedback and practice activities, they are generally not thought to be suitable for high-stakes assessments. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that training can be provided to students in a scalable fashion to generate questions of similar quality to those produced by experts and that identification of suitable questions can be achieved with minimal academic review and editing. Second-year biochemistry and molecular biology students were assigned a series of activities designed to coach them in the art of writing and critiquing MCQs. This training resulted in the production of over 1000 MCQs that were then gauged for potential by either expert academic judgement or via a data-driven approach in which the questions were trialled objectively in a low-stakes test. Questions selected by either method were then deployed in a high-stakes in-semester assessment alongside questions from two academically authored sources: textbook-derived MCQs and past paper questions. A total of 120 MCQs from these four sources were deployed in assessments attempted by over 600 students. Each question was subjected to rigorous performance analysis, including the calculation of standard metrics from classical test theory and more sophisticated item response theory (IRT) measures. The results showed that MCQs authored by students, and selected at low cost, performed as well as questions authored by academics, illustrating the potential of this strategy for the efficient creation of large numbers of high-quality MCQs for summative assessment.</p> 2021-02-03T15:10:23-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alice Huang, Dale Hancock, Matthew Clemson, Giselle Yeo, Dylan Harney, Paul Denny, Gareth Denyer An examination of student preference for traditional didactic or chunking teaching strategies in an online learning environment 2021-01-28T16:34:23-08:00 Brendan Humphries Damien Clark <p>This research examined first year undergraduate tertiary student preferences for different online video playback options by comparing a didactic long lecture recording versus a series of topical ‘chunked’ videos of identical learning material in an information literacy unit. Student preference was determined by student unique download choice of streaming video lecture material, cumulative visits and percent completion of viewing of lecture videos. De-identified click-stream data for 1268 university students across two academic years 2016 (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 647) and 2017 (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 621) were pooled to examine student preference. The major findings indicated a significant preference for chunk-style videos between 3 and 17 min duration when compared to traditional long-view didactic lecture materials. Results also highlighted an increase in unique views (60%–67%), cumulative visits (54%–67%) and percentage completions (25%) of chunked videos compared to didactic lectures (60 min). Additionally, student total viewing of the unit information influenced the final grade for the unit. Student preference and success were in favour of the smaller chunk-style lectures, which may also improve student attention, assist with time management to complete the materials and increase unit engagement. The overall findings of this research re-enforce the value of student-centric learning design in university education settings.</p> 2021-01-28T16:33:16-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Brendan Humphries, Damien Clark Long-term effectiveness of immersive VR simulations in undergraduate science learning: lessons from a media-comparison study 2021-01-18T13:54:03-08:00 Prajakt Pande Amalie Thit Anja Elaine Sørensen Biljana Mojsoska Morten E. Moeller Per Meyer Jepsen <p>Our main goal was to investigate if and how using multiple immersive virtual reality (iVR) simulations and their video playback, in a science course, affects student learning over time. We conducted a longitudinal study, in ecological settings, at an undergraduate field-course on three topics in environmental biology. Twenty-eight undergraduates were randomly assigned to either an iVR-interaction group or a video-viewing group. During the field-course, the iVR group interacted with a head-mounted device-based iVR simulation related to each topic (i.e. total three interventions), while the video group watched a pre-recorded video of the respective simulation on a laptop. Cognitive and affective data were collected through the following checkpoints: a pre-test before the first intervention, one topic-specific post-test immediately after each intervention, a final post-test towards the end of the course, and a longitudinal post-test deployed approximately 2 months after the course. Through a descriptive analysis, it was found that student performance on the knowledge tests increased considerably over time for the iVR group but remained unchanged for the video group. While no within- or between-group differences were noted for intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy measures, students in the iVR group enjoyed all the simulations, and perceived themselves to benefit from those simulations.</p> 2021-01-18T13:53:11-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prajakt Pande, Amalie Thit, Anja Elaine Sørensen, Biljana Mojsoska, Morten E. Moeller, Per Meyer Jepsen Use of augmented reality (AR) to aid bioscience education and enrich student experience 2021-01-16T01:11:12-08:00 Laura Reeves Edward Bolton Matthew Bulpitt Alex Scott Ian Tomey Micah Gates Robert A. Baldock <p>In recent years, development of new technologies designed to enhance user experience have accelerated, often being used in modern media such as in films and games. Specifically, immersive experiences, such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), have redefined how digital media can be delivered, encouraging us to interact with and explore our environment. Reciprocally, as the power of these technologies has advanced, the associated costs to implement them have decreased, making them more cost-effective and feasible to deliver in a variety of settings. Despite the cost reduction, several issues remain with accessibility due to the knowledge base required to generate, optimise and deliver three-dimensional (3D)-digital content in both AR and VR. Here, we sought to integrate an AR-based experience into a level-4 biochemistry module in order to support the delivery of university lectures on protein structure and function. Traditionally, this topic would comprise two-dimensional still images of complex 3D structures. By combining a breadth of subject-specific and technological expertise from across the university, we developed an AR-enhanced learning experience hosted on the Zapworks AR platform. AR enabled full illustration of the complexity of these 3D structures, while promoting collaboration through a shared user experience. Assessing the impact of the AR experience via a formative test and survey revealed that despite only a modest increase in test performance, students overwhelmingly reported positively on the engaging nature and interactivity of AR. Critically, expanding our repertoire of content delivery formats will support the forward-thinking blended learning environments adopted across the higher education sector.</p> 2021-01-15T00:00:00-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Laura Reeves, Matthew Bulpitt, Alex Scott, Edward Bolton, Ian Tomey, Micah Gates, Robert A. Baldock Measuring the correlation between digital media usage and students’ perceived writing ability: Are they related? 2021-01-15T22:45:28-08:00 Jean Parrella Holli Leggette Tobin Redwine <p>The purpose of our correlational, quantitative study was to determine if time spent using digital media (i.e. text messaging and social media) influences students’ media writing self-perceptions (MWSPs). We measured students’ perceived writing ability using the MWSP scale and their time spent using digital media with the social networking time use scale (SONTUS). Correlations between students’ MWSP scores and SONTUS scores were statistically insignificant, suggesting that time spent using digital media does not negatively influence their perceived writing abilities. However, results from further analyses indicated that as students’ social media use increased, so did their ability to recognise the difference between writing for social media and writing for professional publications. We also found that the more students text the more they use social media and vice versa. We present directions for future research and practice.</p> 2021-01-15T22:42:58-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jean Parrella, Holli Leggette, Tobin Redwine Two groups separated by a shared goal: how academic managers and lecturers have embraced the introduction of digital technologies in UK Higher Education 2021-01-15T13:33:42-08:00 Xue Zhou Melania Milecka-Forrest <p>Digital technologies have been widely used in higher education (HE) for years, and the benefits have been recognised by both students and academics. Although many universities have developed their own digital technology strategies, many do not share either their vision or implementation strategies with staff.</p> <p>This research explores differences and similarities in the perception of digital technology by lecturers and academic managers. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast motivations, barriers and support systems required for the use and adoption of digital strategies. Interviews were conducted with a group of 20 lecturers and academic managers in the HE sector. The results reveal that both groups shared a common view that the introduction of digital technology can have a clear set of benefits to students; however, their motivations for introducing new approaches differed significantly. Whilst it is important not to generalise too much given the lack of homogeneity in the two groups and also the crossover between managers and lecturers, managers tended to take a performance goal-based approach to its introduction whilst lecturers were more learning goal orientated. This difference can cause significant difficulties in the implementation of new approaches to learning.</p> 2021-01-15T13:32:50-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Xue Zhou, Melania Milecka-Forrest Perceived educational usefulness of a virtual-reality work situation depends on the spatial human-environment relation 2021-01-05T02:16:43-08:00 Martin Dobricki Kevin G. Kim Alessia E. Coppi Pierre Dillenbourg Alberto Cattaneo <p>Virtual reality (VR) may be useful for situating school-based vocational education in work-life by simulating a work situation such that learners viewing this VR work situation are located inside it. The reason for this assumption is that VR can fully spatially include its viewer. Research on the utility of viewer-including VR work situations for learners has, therefore, already started. However, no study has yet investigated their utility for teachers. This is particularly relevant for work situations involving environmental planning, as VR is expected to facilitate such a task. We, therefore, asked horticultural teachers to assess the educational usefulness of a VR work situation when they were located outside and inside it. For this purpose, we enabled them to plan a basic garden in the VR work situation when its environment was spatially excluding them and when it was including them. We found the teachers to perceive the viewer-including VR work situation as more useful for their teaching than its viewer-excluding version. This suggests that the perceived educational usefulness of a VR work situation depends on the spatial relation of its viewer and environment, that is, the spatial human-environment relation it involves.</p> 2021-01-04T13:38:43-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Martin Dobricki, Kevin G. Kim, Alessia E. Coppi, Pierre Dillenbourg, Alberto Cattaneo Learning experience design for augmented reality 2021-03-02T02:28:29-08:00 Betül Czerkawski Margherita Berti <p>Recent years have seen a growing interest in augmented reality (AR) technologies due to their potential for simulating real-life situations and creating authentic learning tasks. Studies have shown that AR enables engaging and interactive learning experiences (e.g. Bressler and Bodzin&nbsp;<a href="#CIT0008_2429">2013</a>; Klopfer and Sheldon&nbsp;<a href="#CIT0021_2429">2010</a>) and can benefit student learning (e.g. Bonner and Reinders 2018; Siegle 2019). However, although research in AR for education is not scarce, educators often do not have a learning experience design (LXD) approach that is supported by the recent findings of learning sciences and instructional design models. To bridge this gap, the present study introduces an AR-learning prototype developed by using&nbsp;<em>SAM I</em>&nbsp;(Successive Approximation Model I), and the&nbsp;<em>Threshold Concepts Framework</em>, employed for meaningful integration of AR into the learning process. A pre-survey and a post-survey method were utilised in the data gathering process to gauge students’ experience with the AR module. The findings show that the majority of students have not had educational experiences with AR prior to the study, and they struggled to find ways to incorporate this technology into their content areas in a meaningful way. Nonetheless, participants realised the value of AR and stated that they most likely would use this technology in the future. Based on the findings, the authors present a set of suggestions for instructors and LXDs, and provide recommendations for future research.</p> <p><em>This article is part of the special collection: Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More papers from this collection can be found <a href="">here</a>.</em></p> 2021-03-01T14:58:29-08:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Betül Czerkawski, Margherita Berti