https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/issue/feed Research in Learning Technology 2020-02-17T23:21:58+00:00 ALT journal team enquiries@alt.ac.uk Open Journal Systems https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2355 Integration of mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications into biology laboratory: Anatomic structure of the heart 2020-02-14T10:21:21+00:00 Cuneyd Celik gokhanguven@mu.edu.tr Gokhan Guven gokhanguven86@hotmail.com Nevin Kozcu Cakir gokhanguven@mu.edu.tr <p>The purpose of the current study is to design and develop a sample Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) application addressing the anatomic structure of the heart in a way suitable for laboratory learning for pre-service science teachers to achieve learning by constructing information in biology instruction. The implementation of the MAR design activity was conducted with the participation of 30 pre-service teachers taking the biology laboratory course. The implementation process of the activity consists of four stages. The first stage includes the introduction of the MAR application program and marker; the second stage includes the use of the MAR application in a laboratory environment; the third stage includes the operation of dissection and the last stage includes the association of the MAR application with the operation of dissection and general evaluation. Then, semi-structured interviews were conducted by involving pre-service teachers and the data obtained from these interviews revealed that integration of heart dissection with MAR application helped the pre-service teachers to better understand the anatomic structure of the heart and the related concepts. Thus, a sample activity demonstrating how MAR, which is an instructional method with strong potential for reification and visualisation, can be integrated into the teaching of concepts in laboratory settings was developed.</p> 2020-02-14T10:03:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Cuneyd Celik, Gokhan Guven, Nevin Kozcu Cakir https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2340 The effect of adding same-language subtitles to recorded lectures for non-native, English speakers in e-learning environments 2020-02-11T15:37:30+00:00 Gordon Matthew gdm1tth3w@gmail.com <p>Globally, online (or e-learning) environments are growing in popularity in schools and universities. However, the language of instruction in these environments is mostly English. This is a problem as most of the students enrolling into online learning environments in South Africa are non-native English speakers. For these students, English is their second or sometimes third proficient language, which puts them at a disadvantage while accessing information for certain modules. A possible solution is to add same-language subtitles (SLS) to recorded lectures in these online environments to facilitate student learning. Unfortunately, previous studies provided no conclusive evidence of the advantages or disadvantages of adding SLS to a recorded lecture with regard to performance.</p> <p>The participants in this study<a id="Rfn0001_2340"></a><a href="#fn0001_2340"><sup>1</sup></a>&nbsp;were first-year students (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 64) in Academic Literacy, majoring in Economics. They were non-native speakers of English with an average English proficiency and were divided into four groups. Each group watched the same recorded lecture in one of the four presentation modes (PMs) (audio, video and video with two types of subtitles). The findings of the study showed no significant effect either on performance or on perceived cognitive load for the students watching a recorded lecture with added subtitles compared to watching without subtitles.</p> 2020-02-11T15:21:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gordon Matthew https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2324 Choice of device to view video lectures: an analysis of two independent cohorts of first-year university students 2020-02-05T23:18:19+00:00 Jesca Namuddu u1730308@uel.ac.uk Paul N. Watts p.n.watts@uel.ac.uk <p>Video lectures and mobile learning devices have become prominent, but little is known about device choices for watching video lectures. The setting for this study, a university that provided perpetual access to personal computers and free tablet devices to all first-year students, provided a unique opportunity to study device choice in a setting where both tablets and personal computers were perpetually available. Weekly video lectures on a first-year module were made from October to April in two independent cohorts of students. YouTube analytics were used to record data on device usage for video lecture views. Tablets were initially used for almost 70% of views. However, tablet usage declined throughout the academic year, and tablets were overtaken by personal computers as the preferred device in the second half of the academic year. Findings suggest that an initial preference for using tablets to view video lectures lasts only a few months.</p> 2020-02-05T10:00:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jesca Namuddu, Paul N. Watts https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2251 Development of the learning to learn competence in the university context: flipped classroom or traditional method? 2020-01-31T23:16:42+00:00 María Espada maria.espada@upm.es José Antonio Navia joseantonio.navia@upm.es Patricia Rocu patricia.rocu@upm.es Maite Gómez-López maitegomez.lopez@upm.es <p>This study analyses the use of a flipped classroom to develop the ‘learning to learn’ competence in the university context. This research was conducted on a subject about Applied Teaching Methodology included in the Physical Activity and Sports Science degree at the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). A total of 110 university students (mean age 21.6 ± 3.0 years) participated in the research and were divided into two groups: one group (44 students) received an intervention based on the traditional method (with theoretical classes and resolved questions) and the other group (66 students) received an intervention using the flipped classroom method; self-perception of the level of development of the ‘learning to learn’ competence was analysed before and after the intervention. The design involved two groups that followed different types of teaching (traditional vs. flipped classroom) × two moments in time (before and after).</p> <p>This study did not find any significant differences between the traditional and flipped classroom method, in the perception of the development of the ‘learning to learn’ competence.</p> 2020-01-31T10:30:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 María Espada, José Antonio Navia, Patricia Rocu, Maite Gómez-López https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2279 Migration and transformation: a sociomaterial analysis of practitioners’ experiences with online exams 2020-01-27T16:33:17+00:00 Stuart Allan stuart.allan@ebs.hw.ac.uk <p>Many institutions are making the move from pen and paper to online examinations, but the literature offers relatively few critical reflections on the ramifications of such a shift. This research presents evidence of the ways in which the social and human practices of online exams are deeply entangled with the material and technological, and cautions against the reinscribing of essentialist or instrumentalist assumptions about technology in assessment practices. Through semi-structured interviews with eight practitioners in Norway, the Netherlands, the UK and Ireland, it analyses the impact, dimensions and limitations of two main discourses:&nbsp;<em>migration</em>, whereby exam technologies are assumed to be neutral instruments used independently by humans to realise their preordained intentions; and&nbsp;<em>transformation</em>, whereby the essential and inalienable qualities of technologies can be released to ‘transform’ or ‘enhance’ assessment. Its findings indicate that: (1) exam technologies are neither inherently neutral nor essentially transformational; (2) implementation projects underpinned by the migration discourse can be much more complex and resource-intensive than anticipated; and (3) ‘transformative’ change may be value-laden and driven by assumptions. Given the complex and entangled nature of online exams, practitioners are encouraged to think creatively about how assessment strategies align with educational goals, to consider the limitations of current discourses and to analyse critically the relational and performative roles of digital technologies.</p> 2020-01-27T16:14:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Stuart Allan https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2323 Have a question? Just ask it: using an anonymous mobile discussion platform for student engagement and peer interaction to support large group teaching 2020-01-22T13:53:17+00:00 Elaine Tan elaine.tan@newcastle.ac.uk Adrian Small Elaine.tan@ncl.ac.uk Paul Lewis elaine.tan@newcastle.ac.uk <p>This article analyses the pilot of an anonymous question and answer mobile application with a large cohort of undergraduate students (460) enrolled on an Operations Strategy Management module. The mobile application allowed students to pose anonymous questions to both peers and staff, create replies and vote on questions posted by other users. The aim of the pilot was to evaluate how this application could be used to enhance communication, engagement and student learning both inside and outside of class time to overcome some of the challenges presented by large cohort teaching. An initial evaluation was undertaken exploring both the analytics attached to the platform and a thematic analysis of the posts. The initial findings of the pilot were positive, with the majority of students installing and regularly accessing the application with use increasing over time. The questions posed demonstrated engagement beyond surface-level memorisation of module content, and there were indications that the application could be beneficial in supporting student community awareness and interaction within large cohorts.</p> 2020-01-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Elaine Tan, Adrian Small, Paul Lewis https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2308 E-learning educational atmosphere measure (EEAM): a new instrument for assessing e-students’ perception of educational environment 2020-01-21T13:15:26+00:00 Atekeh Mousavi at-mousavi@farabi.tums.ac.ir Aeen Mohammadi aeen_mohammadi@tums.ac.ir Rita Mojtahedzadeh r_mojtahedzadeh@tums.ac.ir Mandana Shirazi mandana.shirazi@ki.se Hamed Rashidi hamedrashidi.ma@gmail.com <p>Universities assess their academic learning environment to improve students’ learning. Students’ experience in e-learning environment is different from face-to-face educational environment. So, in this study a specific valid and reliable instrument was devised for assessing perception of e-students from educational environment, that is, educational atmosphere. Firstly, we devised the primary instrument based on factors constituting educational atmosphere. Then Instrument’s content and construct validity were assessed. Also, Cronbach’s alpha and test–retest were used for studying the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument respectively. The final instrument named ‘e-learning educational atmosphere measure’ (EEAM) consisted of 40 items covering six factors, including programme effectiveness, teaching quality, ethics and professionalism, learner support, safety and convenience, and awareness of the rules, which accounted for 68.53% of variances. Content validity ratio was more than 0.51 and content validity index score of all questions was above 0.81. Test–retest reliability was 0.85 (<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.001) and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.943. Assessing educational atmosphere in e-learning settings by EEAM could provide managers and investors with useful information to settle an effective education system by prioritising the necessary changes.</p> 2020-01-21T12:56:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Atekeh Mousavi, Aeen Mohammadi, Rita Mojtahedzadeh, Mandana Shirazi, Hamed Rashidi https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2258 Patterns in students’ usage of lecture recordings: a cluster analysis of self-report data 2020-02-17T23:21:58+00:00 Daniel Ebbert daniel.ebbert@uni-muenster.de Stephan Dutke stephan.dutke@uni-muenster.de <p>Students’ usage of lecture recordings can be characterised by usage frequency, repetitiveness and selectivity in watching, lecture attendance, and social context and location in which students watch the lecture recordings. At the University of Münster (Germany), the lecture recording service was evaluated over three semesters. The data were combined and used for a cluster analysis with the aim of being able to describe the students’ distinct usage patterns. The cluster analysis was performed using partitioning around medoids with Gower distance. Five clusters of students were identified, which differed mainly on the amount of lecture recordings watched, whether the lecture recordings were watched completely or partially, whether the recordings were watched once or multiple times, and the number of lectures the students missed. The five clusters are interpreted as representing different ways of utilising lecture recordings. The clustering provides a basis for investigating the usage of lecture recordings in the context of different approaches to learning and learning strategies.</p> 2020-01-09T16:07:24+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel Ebbert, Stephan Dutke https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2357 MESH360: a framework for designing MMR-enhanced clinical simulations 2020-02-13T09:57:55+00:00 Thomas Cochrane thomas.cochrane@aut.ac.nz Stephen Aiello stephen.aiello@aut.ac.nz Stuart Cook stuart.cook@helicopters.net.nz Claudio Aguayo claudio.aguayo@aut.ac.nz Norm Wilkinson norm.wilkinson@aut.ac.nz <p>This article evaluates the results of two prototype iterations of a design-based research project that explores the application of mobile mixed reality (MMR) to enhance critical care clinical health education simulation in Paramedicine. The project utilises MMR to introduce critical elements of patient and practitioner risk and stress into clinical simulation learning scenarios to create more authentic learning environments. Subjective participant feedback is triangulated against participant biometric data to validate the level of participant stress introduced to clinical simulation through the addition of MMR. Results show a positive impact on the learning experience for both novice and professional paramedic practitioners. The article highlights the development of implementation and data triangulation methodologies that can be utilised to enhance wider clinical simulation contexts than the original context of Paramedicine education. We argue that our collaborative transdisciplinary design team model provides a transferable framework for designing MMR-enhanced clinical simulation environments.</p> <p><em>This article is part of the special collection Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More papers from this collection can be found&nbsp;<strong><a href="https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/mmr" target="_base">here.</a></strong></em></p> Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Cochrane, Stephen Aiello, Stuart Cook, Claudio Aguayo, Norm Wilkinson https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/2329 Analysing construction student experiences of mobile mixed reality enhanced learning in virtual and augmented reality environments 2020-02-13T09:56:37+00:00 Nikolche Vasilevski nvasilev@bond.edu.au James Birt jbirt@bond.edu.au <p>Mixed reality (MR) and mobile visualisation methods have been identified as important technologies that could reimagine spatial information delivery and enhance higher education practice. However, there is limited research on the impact of mobile MR (MMR) within construction education and improvement of the learners’ experience. With new building information modelling (BIM) workflows being adopted within the architecture, engineering and construction industry, innovative MMR pedagogical delivery methods should be explored to enhance this information-rich spatial technology workflow. This paper outlines qualitative results derived through thematic analysis of learner reflections from two technology-enhanced lessons involving a lecture and a hands-on workshop focussed on MMR-BIM delivered within postgraduate construction education. Seventy participants across the two lessons recruited from an Australian university participated to answer the research question: ‘Does applied mobile mixed reality create an enhanced learning environment for students?’ The results of the analysis suggest that using MMR-BIM can result in an enhanced learning environment that facilitates unique learning experiences, engagement and motivation. However, the study outcome suggests that to understand the processes leading to these learning aspects, further empirical research on the topic is required.</p> <p><em>This paper is part of the special collection Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More papers from this collection can be found <strong><a href="https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/mmr">here</a>.</strong></em></p> 2020-01-16T11:08:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nikolche Vasilevski, James Birt