Research in Learning Technology https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt Association for Learning Technology en-US Research in Learning Technology 2156-7069 <p>Authors contributing to <a href="https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><em>Research in Learning Technology</em></a> retain the copyright of their article and at the same time agree to publish their articles under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License (<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</a>) allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, under the condition that <span style="text-decoration: underline;">appropriate credit</span> is given, that a link to the license is provided, and that you <span style="text-decoration: underline;">indicate if changes were made</span>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<br><br><br></p> Impact and implementation of UNESCO’s Recommendation on Open Educational Resources in academic libraries: SPARC Europe Case Study https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3183 <p>This paper analyses the role of libraries in the development of Open Educational Resources (OER) and, more specifically, the impact and level of implementation of UNESCO’s (2019) OER Recommendation in Higher Education libraries. This study, the result of a joint undertaking between a national R&amp;D project and SPARC Europe, is based on an online survey, disseminated amongst the European Network of Open Education Librarians (ENOEL) and uses a descriptive research methodology. The results highlight the implementation actions being taken by university libraries (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 136) in each of the five areas of action of UNESCO’s Recommendation. We find that the main contributions are being made in the areas of capacity building and Open Education policies, but that considerable work has yet to be done in terms of promoting inclusiveness and the sustainability of OER. Thus, the full implementation of UNESCO’s recommendation requires a greater commitment on the part of librarians to joint actions undertaken via international networks and projects, as well as greater institutional commitment and the building of interdepartmental alliances.</p> Gema Santos-Hermosa Copyright (c) 2024 Gema Santos-Hermosa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-23 2024-05-23 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3183 Students’ perspectives of a study support (Studiosity) service at a University https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3015 <p>Supporting students’ success and achievement is a key mission of WP (Widening Participation) institutions such as the University of Bedfordshire. An essential step in ensuring students succeed is the development of academic writing skills – these are vital during students’ studies and when students leave university study and undertake further study or enter graduate-level employment. During the 2021–2022 academic year, the University of Bedfordshire implemented a study support service called Studiosity, a service designed to provide students with formative feedback on drafts of their assessment tasks. This study utilises a survey instrument exploring Studiosity’s Writing Feedback (WF) service and addresses a gap in the literature where there is very little understanding of the details of students’ engagement with the system. The survey’s results indicate a mismatch between students’ assumptions about formative feedback provided by Studiosity. However, when students utilise Studiosity’s WF service, the personalised and specific feedback raises students’ confidence in their ability to write academically.</p> David Pike Copyright (c) 2024 David Pike http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3015 Improving marking effectiveness and feedback provision in an OSCE assessment using Microsoft Forms: A pilot study in Sport and Exercise Therapy https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3097 <p>An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been recognised as a reliable but workload-intensive assessment method across health sciences studies. Though a variety of digital marking tools have been employed to improve marking and feedback provision for OSCEs, many of these require specialist software or maintenance. This pilot study examines the development and trialling of Microsoft Forms as a marking and feedback instrument for an OSCE within a Sport and Exercise Therapy module. This study aims to assess whether the use of a non-specialist digital tool, such as Microsoft Forms, might be able overcome limitations in current assessment procedures and ultimately provide a more effective method for marking and feedback provision for an OSCE. Results from OSCE examiners (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 8) and students (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 30) who participated in the pilot indicate that Microsoft Forms does have the potential to provide a more effective experience for examiners and ultimately improve upon feedback provision for students when compared with a paper-based marking tool. However, concerns around the form’s ease-of-use may ultimately influence its adoption as a marking instrument above current paper-based methods.</p> Kassie A. Cigliana Tom Gray George Gower Copyright (c) 2024 Kassie A. Cigliana, Tom Gray, George Gower http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3097 Results of integrating short VR exercises into traditional CBTs https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3257 <p>The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of short virtual reality (VR) exercises on knowledge retention for adult learners at a contractor safety training organisation supporting the energy industry who took computer-based training (CBT) courses. The intent was to simulate a delay period similar to that experienced by contractors who support work in the energy industry to determine if traditional CBT can be made more effective for stimulating greater transfer of learning with the addition of VR exercises. The experimental group was exposed to CBTs augmented by VR exercises that reinforced the CBT course learning objectives. The control group for this research took the same CBT course without short VR exercises. A quantitative analysis was performed on data collected from a course exam provided immediately after the course delivery and from a separate follow-up quiz delivered 3 days after the course(s) completion. Data from these testing instruments were analysed to determine the participant’s likelihood of remembering content from the CBT courses and if there was greater knowledge retention of the course learning objectives and procedures within the experimental group than within the control group. The results found a non-statistically significant relationship between the two groups; however, trends between the groups show that there are benefits for transfer of learning when using short VR exercises compared to those groups without short VR exercises.</p> Richard Hannah Copyright (c) 2024 Richard Hannah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-15 2024-04-15 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3257 Students satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement in an emergency online learning course https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3179 <p>This study aimed to evaluate the impact of an emergency online learning course on students’ satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement. This study used a convergent mixed methods approach with an action research design to explore students’ experiences and outcomes in an emergency online science course. This study involved 25 voluntary participants from a private college in Manila, Philippines, who were enrolled in the Science, Technology and Society online course during the 2019–2020 academic year. Data were collected using a variety of instruments, including questionnaires, reflective journals and semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the developed emergency online learning course positively impacted students’ satisfaction, efficacy and achievement. Students were satisfied with their interactions with classmates and teachers and the course content. They also expressed confidence in their ability to perform online tasks independently and master the subject through pre-recorded videos. This study suggests that effective student-teacher interaction, peer relationships, relevant and relatable course content, well-designed lesson materials, clear assessment tasks, differentiated tasks to meet individual learning preferences and teacher creativity are essential factors for student satisfaction, efficacy and achievement in emergency online learning courses.</p> Jose Noel V. Fabia Copyright (c) 2024 Jose Noel V. Fabia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-04 2024-04-04 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3179 Educators’ understandings of digital classroom tools and datafication: perceptions from higher education faculty https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3040 <p>Research has shown that critical data literacies development for educators is seldom a core component of most campus conversations about datafication, even as extractive, datafied systems become pervasive throughout the higher education sector. This article outlines findings from an international, qualitative, Comparative Case Study (CCS) of university professionals teaching online during the COVID-19 pandemic. It overviews beliefs and barriers shaping educators’ responses to datafication and focuses specifically on their perceptions of faculty development opportunities related to digital classroom tools and to datafication more broadly. The article presents insights into how faculty understands higher education’s contemporary datafied infrastructure and highlights participants’ voices about faculty professional development and critical data literacies. Based on our findings, we recommend formal faculty development and broader professional learning conversations as a means of enhancing faculty awareness and agency within the higher education sector.</p> Samantha Szcyrek Bonnie Stewart Erica Miklas Copyright (c) 2024 Samantha Szcyrek, Bonnie Stewart, Erica Miklas http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-14 2024-03-14 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3040 Enhancing the online learning experience of Chinese college students: an investigation of facilitation strategies and their mixed association with student satisfaction https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3020 <p>Facilitation strategies play a critical role in helping instructors teach effectively in an online environment. However, there is a lack of research on how different facilitation strategies impact the online learning experience. To address this gap, our study surveyed 5980 college students from two universities in China and analysed the associations between facilitation strategies and student satisfaction using multivariate and logistic regression analyses. Our findings reveal that facilitation strategies aimed at managerial and technical purposes have different effects on student satisfaction with instructors compared to their satisfaction with their own achievement and engagement. Additionally, we found that student group discussion had a negative association with student satisfaction, potentially due to a preference for hierarchical learning in Confucian-heritage culture. In contrast, after-class learning materials were positively associated with student satisfaction. These findings offer important implications for pedagogical practices that aim to enhance the online learning experience for Chinese students on a large scale.</p> Shixin Fang Yi Lu Guijun Zhang Wenjuan Qin Copyright (c) 2024 Shixin Fang, Yi Lu, Guijun Zhang, Wenjuan Qin http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-07 2024-03-07 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3020 Learning experience design of verbal prompts in virtual reality-based training for autistic children https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3129 <p>This study aimed to explore the design and development of verbal prompts in virtual reality (VR)-based social skills training for autistic children. Autism indicates a category with neurodiversity that influences individuals’ capability to engage in social and cognitive tasks. This complex neurodevelopmental condition manifests in a wide array of patterns, featuring unique experiences of each individual. This study explored both advantages and challenges encountered when autistic children interact with verbal prompts in multi-user, desktop VR-based social skills training. Our explanatory case study involved VR-based learning experiences of four autistic children. We used a qualitative thematic analysis to analyse the study participants’ interaction patterns with verbal prompts in the VR-based training. Our research can contribute to both theoretical knowledge and practical design guidelines for the creation of verbal prompts in desktop VR-based training programmes tailored for autistic children.</p> Jewoong Moon Copyright (c) 2024 Jewoong Moon http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-07 2024-03-07 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3129 Digital competences of teachers in Lebanon: a comparison of teachers’ competences to educational standards https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3203 <p>The impact of digitalisation on everyday life has necessitated the need for learners to acquire digital competence as part of their education. In order to prepare students to become digital citizens, it has become necessary for teachers to acquire and implement digital competence in the classroom. This study applied the DigCompEdu framework to Lebanese schools and teachers to examine the digital competences of teachers and their alignment with Ministry of Education &amp; Higher Education (MEHE) standards. This study followed a cross-sectional descriptive design and involved 170 in-service teachers in Lebanese schools. This study found that whilst schoolteachers’ practice meets all MEHE indicators, there is a significant need for training to schoolteachers in using digital tools and resources to promote collaboration in the learning process. The findings highlighted the importance of digital competences in schools and the need for ongoing training and support for teachers in this area.</p> Levon Momdjian Marni Manegre Mar Gutiérrez-Cólon Copyright (c) 2024 Levon Momdjian, Marni Manegre, Mar Gutiérrez-Cólon http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-07 2024-03-07 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3203 The mediating role of technostress in the relationship between social outcome expectations and teacher satisfaction: evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic in music education https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3086 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted significant changes in education, including a widespread transition from traditional, in-person instruction to online learning, which has also affected music conservatories. This study investigates the relationship between social outcome expectations and teacher satisfaction with remote education (SRE) among conservatory music professors during the pandemic. Rooted in the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), the study examines whether technostress mediates this relationship and whether the intention to use information and communication technology (ICT) moderates it. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 108 Italian conservatory teachers through an online self-report questionnaire. The results indicate a negative indirect effect of social outcome expectations on teacher satisfaction through technostress. However, surprisingly, the direct effect was positive and stronger. The study suggests that social expectations lead to technostress. Still, they also present an opportunity for music educators to embrace the challenge of remote education and increase their satisfaction with it.</p> Ferdinando Toscano Teresa Galanti Veronica Giffi Teresa Di Fiore Michela Cortini Stefania Fantinelli Copyright (c) 2024 Ferdinando Toscano, Teresa Galanti, Veronica Giffi, Teresa Di Fiore, Michela Cortini, Stefania Fantinelli http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-29 2024-01-29 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3086 Spatial learning using Google Streetview in an online wayfinding task https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3067 <p>The use of navigation applications changed the way people find their way in an unfamiliar environment. A combination of maps, images and textual route instructions shown (or with audio) on one screen guides the user to the destination but may sometimes be overwhelming. This article investigated the spatial knowledge participants acquired after being presented with different types of route instructions, human and computer-generated, in an online wayfinding task using Google Streetview (without the 2D map) of an unfamiliar environment. The results showed a significant difference in the wayfinding performance for deviations from computer-generated instructions, whilst there was no difference in the time spent and the scene recall. Sketch maps revealed both route-like and survey-like characteristics. But most sketch maps are characterised by high route-likeness. Furthermore, this study showed a significant effect of the environmental layout on the participant’s performance based on deviations incurred during wayfinding. The results of this study have implications for improving navigation system instructions and design as well as for learning with geospatial technologies.</p> Vanessa Joy A. Anacta Copyright (c) 2024 Vanessa Joy Anacta http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-26 2024-01-26 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3067 Enhancing postgraduate students’ learning outcomes through Flipped Mobile-Based Microlearning https://journal.alt.ac.uk/index.php/rlt/article/view/3110 <p>This study examines the effects of implementing a Flipped Mobile-Based Microlearning (FMM) approach on postgraduate students’ accessibility, engagement, knowledge retention, overall learning experience and academic achievement. A quantitative multiple methods approach was employed, utilising a two-group quasi-experimental design and a survey questionnaire to gather data. The results suggest that the FMM approach may have positive effects on accessibility, engagement, knowledge retention, overall learning experience and final exam scores when compared to the traditional learning approach. The findings support the efficacy of integrating FMM, highlighting its potential for enhancing the learning process and academic outcomes. These results have implications for educational practice and research, emphasising the value of technology-enhanced learning approaches, active and interactive learning experiences and the promotion of student motivation and attitudes towards learning. This study underscores the broader applicability of FMM and suggests its potential for improving educational outcomes across different educational levels and subject areas.</p> Abdulrahman M. Al-Zahrani Copyright (c) 2024 Abdulrahman M. Al-Zahrani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-23 2024-01-23 32 10.25304/rlt.v32.3110