Research in Learning Technology Association for Learning Technology en-US Research in Learning Technology 2156-7069 Authors contributing to Research in Learning Technology retain the copyright of their article and at the same time agree to publish their articles under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License (<a href="" target="_blank"></a>) allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, under the condition that <span style="text-decoration: underline;">appropriate credit</span> is given, that a link to the license is provided, and that you <span style="text-decoration: underline;">indicate if changes were made</span>. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.<br /><br /><br /> The effectiveness of flipped learning strategy in the development of scientific research skills in procedural research course among higher education diploma students <p>There have been efforts to investigate the effectiveness of the flipped learning strategy in the development of scientific research skills (SRS) in the procedural research course among higher education diploma students. However, studies examining the effectiveness of the flipped learning strategy in the development of SRS are, thus far, rare. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design, with two types of teaching methods. One research group was assigned to the flipped learning teaching method (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30) and the other to the conventional teaching method (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 30). A multiple-choice SRS test was developed and used. The results showed that the flipped learning teaching method was more effective than the conventional teaching method, in gauging students’ SRS.</p> Omar M. Mahasneh Copyright (c) 2020 Omar M. Mahasneh 2020-11-25 2020-11-25 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2327 The effects of a Moodle-based instructional unit on physical activity in schools on 15–20 years experienced permanent Irish primary teachers physical activity knowledge, attitudes and behaviour <p>Childhood obesity is nearing epidemic proportions in Ireland and abroad. Childhood is a key period in the prevention of obesity and additional conditions that are associated with a sedentary lifestyle. The study aimed to discuss the effect of a short eLearning course for Irish primary teachers and its effect on their behaviours, attitudes and knowledge towards physical activity in schools. Research on activity levels in children was also examined with schools being seen as a core change agent in the combat against childhood obesity.</p> David Brennan Copyright (c) 2020 David Thomas Brennan 2020-11-12 2020-11-12 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2203 The impact of audience response platform Mentimeter on the student and staff learning experience <p>Research suggests that active and discussion-driven dialogic approaches to teaching are more effective than passive learning methods. One way to encourage more participatory learning is through the adoption of simple and freely available audience response systems which allow instant and inclusive staff–student dialogue during teaching sessions. Existing literature is largely limited to exploring the impact of basic approaches to audience participation, using handheld cards or simple ‘clickers’. Limited research exists looking at the impact and best use of a new generation of online audience response systems which have significantly expanded functionality. This article explores the impact of one of the most agile platforms, Mentimeter. It outlines impact on student satisfaction, enjoyment, voice and learning within small and large group settings across multiple disciplines drawing on 204 student survey responses. It also explores staff experiences and reflections on the key practical and pedagogical thinking required to optimise the use of this platform in higher education. The research responds to a need within the sector to react to rapid advances in teaching and learning technology, to provide evidence of impact for lecturers looking to improve student learning environments whilst being cognisant of the underlying pedagogy supportive of new practices.</p> Emma Mayhew Madeleine Davies Amanda Millmore Lindsey Thompson Alicia Pena Bizama Copyright (c) 2020 Emma Mayhew, Madeleine Davies, Amanda Millmore, Lindsey Thompson, Alicia Pena Bizama 2020-10-30 2020-10-30 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2397 First year undergraduates make use of recordings to overcome the barriers to higher education: evidence from a survey <p>In this study, 295 (13.8% response rate) first year students from a large, Scottish, Russell-Group university were surveyed on their attitudes to and use of lecture recordings in 2018. Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to compare the ranked responses between students in different categories relevant to monitoring equality and diversity, such as carer status (5% of respondents), learning adjustments (9% of respondents) and non-native English speakers (27% of respondents). Students most commonly watched a full lecture by themselves when studying with 60% watching a full lecture at least once a week. Non-native English speakers were more likely to watch specific parts of a lecture more frequently (<em>H</em><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;= 8.52,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.014). Students with learning adjustments more often reported being unable to find a resource (<em>H</em><sup>3</sup>&nbsp;= 8.356,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.039). There was no effect of students’ language, carer status or learning adjustment status on their self-reported likelihood to attend a lecture, likelihood to change note-taking behaviour or concentrate on a lecture if it was being recorded. Non-native English speakers were still more likely to worry about keeping up with a lecture, even when it was being recorded (<em>H</em><sup>2</sup>&nbsp;= 10.492,&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.005). In conclusion, lecture recording has different impacts on students from different backgrounds, and inclusive lecture recording education policies need to consider this impact.</p> Jill R.D. MacKay Copyright (c) 2020 Jill R.D. MacKay 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2476 An exploratory study of students’ perceptions of learning management system utilisation and learning community <p>Blackboard Learn is one of the learning management systems (LMSs), which is used in teaching to manage user learning interventions and assist in the planning, distribution and evaluation of a specific learning process. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the functionalities of Blackboard Learn were used in online courses and how students perceived the benefits of using them. Also, the study was to investigate how students’ perceptions of teaching, cognitive and social presences within the Community of Inquiry and perceived benefits of using Blackboard Learn were related to their learning efforts. The results revealed that students who consider Blackboard tools more beneficial on their learning are most likely to have higher perceptions of teaching presence. Moreover, students’ learning efforts were increased primarily by students’ perceptions on perceived benefits of using Blackboard and secondarily by students’ perceptions of social presences. In conclusion, utilising LMS tools effectively in online courses can benefit students’ course work and would motivate them to put more efforts on their learning.</p> Hungwei Tseng Copyright (c) 2020 Hungwei Tseng 2020-10-13 2020-10-13 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2423 Empowered learning through microworlds and teaching methods: a text mining and meta-analysis-based systematic review <p>Microworlds are simulations in computational environments where the student can manipulate objects and learn from those manipulations. Since their creation, they have been used in a wide range of academic areas to improve students learning from elementary school to college. However, their effectiveness is unclear since many studies do not measure the acquired knowledge after the use of microworlds but instead they focus on self-evaluation. Furthermore, it has not been clear whether its effect on learning is related to the teaching method. In this study, we perform a meta-analysis to ascertain the impact of microworlds combined with different teaching methods on students’ knowledge acquisition. We applied a selection criterion to a collection of 668 studies and were left with 10 microworld applications relevant to our learning context. These studies were then assessed through a meta-analysis using effect size with Cohen’s&nbsp;<em>d</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>p</em>-value. Our analysis shows that the cognitive methods combined with microworlds have a great impact on the knowledge acquisition (<em>d</em>&nbsp;= 1.03;&nbsp;<em>p</em>&nbsp;&lt; 0.001) but failed to show a significant effect (<em>d</em>&nbsp;= 0.21) for expository methods.</p> Joana Martinho Costa Sérgio Moro Guilhermina Miranda Taylor Arnold Copyright (c) 2020 Joana Martinho Costa, Sérgio Moro, Guilhermina Miranda, Taylor Arnold 2020-10-13 2020-10-13 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2396 Critical literacies for a datafied society: academic development and curriculum design in higher education <p>Participation in democracy, in today’s digital and datafied society, requires the development of a series of transversal skills, which should be fostered in higher education (HE) through critically oriented pedagogies that interweave technical data skills and practices together with information and media literacies. If students are to navigate the turbulent waters of data and algorithms, then data literacies must be featured in academic development programmes, thereby enabling HE to lead in the development of approaches to understanding and analysing data, in order to foster reflection on how data are constructed and operationalised across societies, and provide opportunities to learn from the analysis of data from a range of sources. The key strategy proposed is to adopt the use of open data as open educational resources in the context of problem and research-based learning activities. This paper introduces a conceptual analysis including an integrative overview of relevant literature, to provide a landscape perspective to support the development of academic training and curriculum design programmes in HE to contribute to civic participation and to the promotion of social justice.</p> Javiera Atenas Leo Havemann Cristian Timmermann Copyright (c) 2020 Javiera Atenas, Leo Havemann, Cristian Timmermann 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2468 Beyond description: in search of disciplinary digital capabilities through signature pedagogies <p>The development of digital capabilities has received significant attention in higher education (HE) in recent years, with various attempts made to develop digital frameworks to support curriculum design. However, few studies have articulated these generic capabilities in terms of specific disciplines. This paper addresses the gap by exploring how digital capabilities are planned in HE curricula in two professional disciplines, engineering and management, at the two UK universities. Originality of the study is achieved in part through a newly proposed conceptual framework that weaves Shulman’s notion of signature pedagogies together with Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC)’s Digital Capability Framework (DigiCap). This study employed a multiple-case study methodology, drawing on documentary sources and academic, professional and student perspectives via interviews and focus groups. This study offers insight into the digital capabilities in engineering and management education, as well as the digital practices of engineers and managers. Findings report on which DigiCap elements are prioritised, and how, in the two professions, followed by a discussion of their most distinct ‘signature digital capabilities’. These indicate that the development of digital capabilities is aligned with the respective discipline’s signature pedagogies. This study argues that, simply just using a descriptive, typological framework is not sufficient to identify signature digital capabilities of a subject without tending to their disciplinary aspects. It is the combination of a typological DigiCap framework through the lens of signature pedagogies, which can be effective in identifying disciplinary digital capabilities. This approach is one of the major outcomes of this study.</p> Tünde Varga-Atkins Copyright (c) 2020 Tünde Varga-Atkins 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2467 A mobile app for public legal education: a case study of co-designing with students <p>The sharp decline in levels of state-funded legal support has highlighted the importance of publicly available sources of legal information for facilitating access to justice. Mobile apps present an opportunity to provide legal information that can be targeted at particular audiences. University law schools, sometimes in partnership with civil society organisations, are beginning to engage their students in cross-disciplinary projects to create mobile apps, which can provide free legal information and guidance to the public.</p> <p>The aim of this case study was to evaluate one such project which involved the co-design of a mobile app for the purpose of disseminating information on employment law. Law, education and computing academics worked with undergraduate law students over a period of 3 months and the prototype app was reviewed by legal advice charities. The findings have implications for how universities can work across disciplines and in partnership with civil society to provide opportunities for their students to use technology to apply their disciplinary knowledge to enhance the public good.</p> Hugh McFaul Elizabeth FitzGerald David Byrne Francine Ryan Copyright (c) 2020 Hugh McFaul, Elizabeth FitzGerald, David Byrne, Francine Ryan 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2434 A chemistry laboratory platform enhanced with virtual reality for students’ adaptive learning <p>In recent years, virtual reality system (VRS) has become more prominent among many researchers due to its capacity of providing as close as possible to real-life experience for users from diverse fields of life, such as tourism, academics, manufacturing and medicine. In this study, we present an VRS for the titration experiment in a chemistry laboratory to enable students to learn the titration experiment in a virtual laboratory environment before proceeding to the chemistry wet lab. The virtual chemistry laboratory environment was developed using the Unity Real-Time Development Platform, and the Microsoft SQL Server was used for the database to enable easy assessment of the student performance after the experiment. To evaluate our VRS, we tested it among 50 students (25 high school and 25 first-year undergraduate chemistry students). We collate their user’s experience through a structured questionnaire, and the responses from the students show that 60% agreed that it was helpful, 66% easy to interact with and 54% strongly agreed that it improved learning. Therefore, it is evidence that the proposed VR-enabled chemistry laboratory platform could be used to improve the understanding of chemistry titration practical process among students.</p> Oluwatoyin C. Agbonifo Oluwafemi A. Sarumi Yewande M. Akinola Copyright (c) 2020 Oluwatoyin C. Agbonifo, Oluwafemi A. Sarumi, Yewande M. Akinola 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2419 Digital storytelling: a tool for promoting historical understanding among college students <p>As an engaging learning strategy, digital storytelling provides students opportunities for developing competencies as they immerse themselves in a meaningful learning experience. The study presented in this article explored the potential of digital storytelling as an instrument for the promotion of historical understanding. Thirty first-year teacher education students, who were divided into eight groups, participated in a digital storytelling project that required them to produce their own digital stories. The project was designed as an 8-week activity, which consisted of activities that guided them throughout the pre-production, production, and post-production phases. After the final week of the project, the students participated in focus group discussions. Aside from the focus group responses, data were also obtained from their reflection journal entries and digital stories. The qualitative data were subjected to thematic network analysis, surfacing six organising themes, namely historical significance, historical imagination, perspective taking, continuity, historical emphasis, and values and traits identification. These findings suggest specific courses of action for integrating technology in a history classroom.</p> Ericson H. Peñalba Chaddlyn Rose C. Samaniego Shiella Mae A. Romero Copyright (c) 2020 Ericson H. Peñalba, Chaddlyn Rose C. Samaniego, Shiella Mae A. Romero 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2348 Exploring the use of online machine translation for independent language learning <p>The free availability of online machine translation (OMT) on the Internet via computers, tablets and smartphones makes it convenient for use by language students of all levels. Google Translate has been widely listed as an independent language learning (ILL) resource and we cannot deny its role for ongoing education.</p> <p>We are aware of the fact that this developing piece of technology was not designed with language learning in mind and, as a consequence, has limited current abilities depending on the language pair, language direction, genre, etc. However, as educators, we cannot help but wonder how the students use it independently and what pedagogical implications this may have in the language class.</p> <p>This study sets to analyse how language learners assess the usefulness of machine translation output and what they think about the use of OMT (in combination with other online language resources) for oral and written comprehension and production (e.g. writing and translation). This will help determining whether its use by language learners can be counterproductive or whether, if used wisely, can assist ILL and help boosting language instant communication.</p> Ana Niño Copyright (c) 2020 Ana Niño 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2402 Performance, behaviour and perceptions of an open educational resource-derived interactive educational resource by online and campus university students <p>Platforms are now becoming available to allow for incorporating interactive elements into open educational resources (OERs), but little has been published about their use and effectiveness. Students enrolled in online and on-campus sections of an intermediate human nutrition course at a public Midwestern University in the United States used an OER that was adapted to an online platform, where it included embedded videos and summative assessments (interactive educational resource). Data were collected from the learning management system, course performance, resource platform and a survey. Student course grades were positively correlated with use of the interactive educational resource and percentage of questions correctly answered. Overall survey response rate was 84/109 (77.1%). Student respondents reported higher use of the interactive educational resource and preferred it over a static PDF or hard copy. Students were most motivated to utilise the interactive educational resource by the opportunity to earn extra credit followed by desire to earn a good grade. Student respondents reported that they were satisfied with their experiences using the interactive educational resource, and with a high likelihood, would recommend future students to use it. While these findings are limited to one semester at one university, they support future research efforts into the efficacy of interactive educational resources and OER-enabled pedagogy.</p> Erin J. Ward Brian L. Lindshield Copyright (c) 2020 Erin J Ward, Brian L Lindshield 2020-08-24 2020-08-24 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2386 Tech and me: an autoethnographic account of digital literacy as an identity performance <p>This paper is an autoethnographic account of developing digital literacy, as seen through references to identity, both in direct and indirect relationship to digital technology. Conceiving of digital literacy as a process that includes identity change, and identity as constituted by actions performed, posts from my blog focusing on educational technology written between 2011 and 2019, are analysed and coded. An initial analysis uses a framework, which sees digital literacy as an interaction between skills, practices and identity. The findings highlight not only the importance of identity but also the need for a more detailed understanding of identity than the one provided by this model. Findings related to identity are then analysed further. In the process, four specific and contradictory themes are revealed – technology advocate, technology sceptic, technology adept and technology novice. In addition, the importance of other identity markers in relation to technology is explored. In the context of individuals and organisations prioritising the enhancement of digital literacy, this paper suggests that the role of identity in such enhancement is critical and is not sufficiently captured in current research and discussion.</p> Daniel Clark Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel Clark 2020-08-21 2020-08-21 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2389 Changing the Spanish arts curriculum for secondary school: the case for digital geometry and screencasting <p>The classroom curriculum for teaching geometry using digital technology needs to emphasise a radically different set of contents and skills when compared with the current paper and pencil standards in use in Spanish classrooms complying with the current official curriculum. This research examined possible applications of vector graphics and screencasting as the main tools to teach digital drawing and geometry in secondary school classrooms during the year 2018–19 within the limits set in the official curriculum, intending to find out how ready students are to use these digital tools. In collaboration with art teachers in Madrid, a screencasting set of seven lessons were made available to almost 250 students and feedback data were collected using an online survey. An analysis of the results revealed that no technological or cultural barrier to adoption existed on the part of the students to accept both online instruction methods, and digital geometry and drawing exercises with vector graphics. Based on these findings, contextual information is presented to advocate Spanish educational policy decision-makers to encourage the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in classrooms in a well-adapted, environmentally-conscious manner.</p> Altamira Sáez-Lacave Ana Rodriguez-Lopez Silvia Serrano-Muñoz Raquel Perez-Fariñas Copyright (c) 2020 Altamira Sáez-Lacave, Ana Rodriguez-Lopez, Silvia Serrano-Muñoz, Raquel Perez-Fariñas 2020-08-20 2020-08-20 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2342 Student engagement and disengagement in TEL – The role of gaming, gender and non-native students <p>Student engagement is critical for learning. However, little is known about engagement and disengagement and particular social groups. Recent research has alerted that engagement in technology-enhanced learning (TEL) settings may manifest differently than engagement in analogue learning settings. This study explores how different social groups of upper secondary school students (<em>n</em>= 410) engage and disengage when learning with digital technologies. We used an instrument to approach dimensions of engagement and disengagement in TEL. Using thematic analysis, we identified cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social aspects of engagement and disengagement in eight-student interviews which together with theory, informed a questionnaire. Using statistical methods, we explored the relationship between engagement, disengagement and the social categories: gamers, gender and non-native speakers. We found significant differences between the groups. For example: that high-frequency gaming students were not as easily distracted as students reporting low-frequency gaming, that female students engaged in TEL in different ways than male students, and that non-native speakers displayed significantly fewer tendencies to engage in unauthorised uses of digital technologies than native speakers. Identifying indicators reflecting engagement and disengagement in TEL in social groups can inform successful practices that stimulate student engagement and can be used to avoid, or redeem, group-specific challenges that trigger disengagement.</p> Nina Bergdahl Jalal Nouri Copyright (c) 2020 Nina Bergdahl, Jalal Nouri 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2293 The case for engaging online tutors for supporting learners in higher education in refugee contexts <p>International development initiatives such as the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 are helping to position higher education as a key solution available to policy makers in their efforts to alleviate various ongoing refugee crises around the world. As technology develops and higher education embraces new forms of delivery, such as blended learning approaches, university courses can be accessed in far-flung places and reach more people than ever before. With this increased emphasis on higher education solutions and more refugees taking advantage of these solutions, there is a growing awareness among practitioners that digital learning requires adequate support beyond merely transmitting educational materials to learners. This support or scaffolding requires the input of various instructional and administrative actors to create a successful collaborative learning model. Using InZone’s collaborative learning ecosystem for enabling higher education refugee contexts as a case study, this study examines the role of online tutors in such scaffolding. Various factors that shape online tutoring are explored and data collected from nine courses enabled in Azraq and Kakuma refugee camps in 2017 and 2018 are presented to support the use of online tutoring for improving course completion rates and ultimately making the case for engaging online tutors for higher education in refugee contexts.</p> Paul O'Keeffe Copyright (c) 2020 Paul O'Keeffe 2020-08-19 2020-08-19 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2428 Pre-service primary teachers’ views and use of technology in mathematics lessons <p>Pre-service teachers who are future practitioners of the curriculum cannot be considered independent of their views on education and technology. The goal of this study is to determine the use of technology and the opinions of pre-service primary teachers (PPTs) regarding the use of technology in classroom activities in mathematics lessons. The research was conducted with 62 PPTs studying in a state university. The study is based on a case study. The PPTs designed and implemented activities with respect to the objective(s) in the primary school mathematics-teaching programme. These activities were observed and recorded in video. At the end of the semester, the opinion form prepared by the researchers was applied to the PPTs. Descriptive statistics, descriptive analysis and content analysis methods were used in the analysis of the data. According to the findings of the research, almost all of the PPTs expressed opinions about the positive and negative aspects of technology usage related to education. Furthermore, while 83.86% of the PPTs indicated that they wanted to use technology effectively in their professional lives in the future, only 19.35% of the observed activities benefited from the technology. PPTs advocated two main reasons for not using technology in classroom activities. The first was that concrete material is more effective where physical conditions are inadequate and the difficulty in accessing materials, especially at schools in rural areas. The second main reason concerned time constraints while following the curriculum.</p> Muhammet Şahal Ahmet Şükrü Ozdemir Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammet Şahal, Ahmet Şükrü Ozdemir 2020-08-07 2020-08-07 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2302 Cheap, accessible, and virtual experiences as tools for immersive study: a proof of concept study <p>Virtual and augmented reality technology is becoming more commonly available within a plethora of environments in which we exist, including educational environments. With advances in technology, and more exposure to its capabilities, there is a greater expectations and reliance on it. However, much of the hardware (and some of the software) which makes this technology usable is expensive and inaccessible to many. This article introduces a method for capturing and providing cost-effective virtual reality experiences, used here as a tool to give students improved accessory data and context regarding geological lab samples. The method introduced utilises the Google Cardboard camera app and Google Cardboard viewers. The virtual reality environment created is a mini-immersive experience that could be provided to students, or collected by students for their own use. The article reports results from a study of 20 participants who answered a questionnaire outlining their experiences of implementing the method. They responded positively, highlighting the applicability of the method to the task, the ease of use of tool and the accessibility of technology. Image quality of the method was raised as an area for improvement.</p> Steven L. Rogers Copyright (c) 2020 Steven Rogers 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2416 Students’ video viewing habits during a flipped classroom course in engineering mathematics <p>A flipped classroom lecture approach was utilised in an engineering mathematics course (118 students). This article reports on student viewing habits based on 104 videos over a period of 12 weeks. The video statistics indicate that many students waited until the last day before assignments to watch the required videos. There are also indications that the students would try to reduce the heavy workload induced by watching all videos on a single day by skipping videos perceived as less valuable. The data show a strong negative correlation between the length of a video and how much of that video the students watched per viewing setting. However, although students watched less of longer videos, the data also indicate that the students still watched, to a large degree, every part of the videos, just not in a single viewing session. Based on these results, recommendations on video creation and flipped classroom implementation are given.</p> Kjetil Liestøl Nielsen Copyright (c) 2020 Kjetil Liestøl Nielsen 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2404 Using social media to support teaching and learning in higher education: an analysis of personal narratives <p>The increasing trend of using new media technologies and particularly social media (SM) among students provides an advantage for lecturers. Apparently their importance accelerated with the application of social distancing during a pandemic crisis such as the one World has been experiencing since the end of 2019. In this article, the stories of two academics are used expressing experiences, motives and perceptions on benefits and challenges of using SM to support teaching and learning in the classroom. The stories which form the data of the research describe how and why the participants started to use SM, their intended purpose and the ways of use. Besides, reasons, difficulties and positive as well as the negative sides are explored. The findings show that the virtual learning environments provided by SM facilitated the development of students’ enthusiasm and interaction with peers assertively, thus increasing the students’ participation. Because of emerging technologies, SM platforms surge and plummet quickly; therefore, it is important for institutions to either develop their platform or to subscribe to existing ones for effective knowledge sharing at an institutional level with clear ethical rules.</p> Nurten Kara Begüm Çubukçuoğlu Alev Elçi Copyright (c) 2020 Nurten Kara, Begüm Çubukçuoğlu, Alev Elçi 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2410 Does technical assessment matter? Functionality and usability testing of websites for ESL/EFL autonomous learners <p>Given the social impact and the transformation of the teaching–learning process enhanced by new technologies, online language learning has been established as a field of study that has been approached primarily from the perspective of pedagogical themes. In the context of the LinguApp research project developed at the University of Córdoba (Spain),<sup><a id="Rfn0001_2353"></a><a href="#fn0001_2353">1</a></sup>&nbsp;we aim to evaluate the technical quality of a group of English teaching websites for self-directed learning. The analysis is based on functionality and usability aspects through the use of a specifically designed checklist, created and preliminarily implemented in the early development phase of this study. To complete the design of the checklist before external validation, we offer a comparative study of four renowned websites from the LinguApp corpus: ESOLCourses, BBC, British Council and Cambridge English.<sup><a id="Rfn0002_2353"></a><a href="#fn0002_2353">2</a></sup>&nbsp;These preliminary results allow to identify the strengths and weaknesses of these language learning websites by subjecting the data to qualitative and quantitative analysis, while they shed light on the need to strengthen web performance and so reinforce autonomous language students’ experience.</p> Natividad Aguayo Cristina M. Ramírez Copyright (c) 2020 Natividad Aguayo, Cristina M. Ramírez 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2353 A flipped classroom model for inquiry-based learning in primary education context <p>A multi-case study will be presented in this publication which aimed to address an important gap in the current literature concerning the effective implementation of a flipped classroom (FC) model in a particular educational setting. There has been limited research focusing on utilising a FC model within the primary education context despite its potential benefits for young students, such as facilitating student-centred inquiry-based learning (IBL) and developing their higher order cognitive skills. This multi-case study has been drawn from authors’ collaborative action research project with other teacher participants, during which the authors explored the effective ways in which a FC model can be utilised to promote students’ IBL in primary school settings. The authors first develop an inquiry-based flipped classroom (IB-FC) model and applied the model into five primary schools in Cyprus for a school year (2017–2018). A total number of five teachers, 77 students and 48 of their parents were invited to participate in the project. A large volume of qualitative data was collected mainly through classroom observations and interviews. Data analysis of teachers’, students’ and parents’ experiences and perceptions led to the development of seven universal design principles. These principles can be used to support primary school teachers’ attempts to design effective instructions using the IB-FC model.</p> Maria Loizou Kyungmee Lee Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Loizou, Kyungmee Lee 2020-07-09 2020-07-09 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2287 Factors influencing teachers’ utilisation of ICT: the role of in-service training courses and access <p>The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influencing factors of ICT integration at secondary schools of Isfahan province. In order to obtain a realistic view of the factors especially among those teachers who attended ICT training courses, a total sample of 180 secondary school teachers were recruited randomly and a survey was completed. A researcher-approved questionnaire was developed to measure participants’ access rate to ICT resources, ICT skills and their ICT integration practices. The content validity method was used for estimating the validity of the questionnaire and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated to verify its reliability. The results were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics methods. Based on the results, teachers have adequate access to hardware at home and school. However, the access rate to software is not of a desirable level. In spite of attending ICT training courses, secondary teachers were not proficient in using ICT tools and their technology usage in education, research and communication domains is less than the desired level. Results indicate that though there is a tendency to get computers and use the Internet, still using them in different areas remains an unsolved problem. The findings address implications for teacher educators and professional development programme providers.</p> Azam Esfijani Bibi Eshrat Zamani Copyright (c) 2020 Azam Esfijani, Bibi Eshrat Zamani 2020-06-26 2020-06-26 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2313 ‘This is two different worlds, you have the asylum world and you have the study world’: an exploration of refugee participation in online Irish higher education <p>This qualitative study explores the transition experiences of refugees to study online in Dublin City University (DCU). Asylum seekers face financial, structural, cultural and digital equity barriers to access higher education (HE). In response to these barriers to access, DCU became a ‘University of Sanctuary’ in 2017, offering scholarships to refugees. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Four themes were constructed in the data-led thematic analysis: asylum world, belonging to the DCU community, the personal impact of studying and study world. Overall, this study strengthens the idea that access programmes such as the University of Sanctuary scholarships can facilitate participation in HE for refugees, provided that the necessary support to address the financial, structural, cultural and digital equity barriers is in place.</p> Orna Farrell James Brunton Eamon Costello Lorraine Delaney Mark Brown Colum Foley Copyright (c) 2020 Orna Farrell, James Brunton, Eamon Costello, Lorraine Delaney, Mark Brown, Colum Foley 2020-06-01 2020-06-01 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2368 Peer-graded individualised student homework in a single-instructor undergraduate engineering course <p>This article reports on the implementation of a programme of individualised, peer-graded homework assignments in a large-scale engineering course, with minimal resources. Participation in the programme allows students to receive grades for problem-solving work in a setting more conducive to learning than the traditional final examination. The homework programme was designed to support the ordinary course work and examination preparation of students along the semester, rather than an expansion of the curriculum. The implementation is carried out using a series of scripts on a local computer, for speed of deployment, portability and privacy protection. Data relevant to instructors are provided, showing that the programme integrates well within an existing grading system, at a relatively low time cost for the instructor, resulting in a relatively large enhancement in the students’ learning experience.</p> Olivier Cleynen Germán Santa-Maria Mathias Magdowski Dominique Thévenin Copyright (c) 2020 Olivier Cleynen, Germán Santa-Maria, Mathias Magdowski, Dominique Thévenin 2020-05-15 2020-05-15 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2339 Co-creation of knowledge using mobile technologies and digital media as pedagogical devices in undergraduate STEM education <p>Digital media assignments are a widely used method of assessing student learning in higher education. Despite their common use, the literature on digital media assignments has many gaps regarding theoretical frameworks to guide their design, implementation and evaluation. This research paper focuses on student attitudes towards the use of mobile technology and digital media assignments in undergraduate STEM education. The study used a set of novel theoretical frameworks to identify training needs in digital media production, development of assessment weightings, marking rubrics and student training and resources. Longitudinal data were captured over a period of 4 years (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 1724) using a mixed-methods approach. Validated questionnaires measured student attitudes to digital media support and attitudes to technology, understanding of the assignment, knowledge construction and digital media for learning and career development. Open-ended questions helped gather suggestions from students for improving the assessment task. Questionnaire data were analysed by using descriptive statistics and qualitative data with thematic analysis. The results suggested that students enjoyed group work, found learning with digital media to be engaging and developed critical thinking and digital media skills. In conclusion, STEM students had a positive learning experience repurposing mobile technology as pedagogical devices that present knowledge by using a multi-modal approach mediated by digital media.</p> Jorge Reyna Peter Meier Copyright (c) 2020 Jorge Reyna, Peter Meier 2020-05-12 2020-05-12 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2356 Holographic teaching presence: participant experiences of interactive synchronous seminars delivered via holographic videoconferencing <p>This study seeks to identify potential advantages of using holographic videoconferencing to deliver seminars within higher education as compared to the use of alternative non-holographic videoconferencing. Holographic videoconferencing offers opportunities to enhance attendees’ experience of remotely delivered seminars but has not been widely researched. Data were collected from 127 attendees attending one of three seminars, each of which featured a combination of physically present presenters and remote presenters participating via holographic videoconferencing. In this study, the holographic representations were three-dimensional and life-size. Monitors and holographic images were calibrated in a manner such that the remote presenters were able to point to and achieve eye-contact with members of the audience. Results indicate that the use of holographic videoconferencing can enhance the teaching presence of remote presenters, the engagement between participants and attendees’ enjoyment of a seminar. Almost all participants reported this to be their first experience of a holographic event and the positive results are partly explained by a sense of novelty. This suggests that the benefits of holographic videoconferencing may reduce over time. However, we argue that some benefit, resulting from an enhanced degree of teaching presence, will be sustained. The relative impact on learning gain is not explored in the current study. We believe that this would likely require a more controlled experiment in future research.</p> Nai Li David Lefevre Copyright (c) 2020 Nai Li, David Lefevre 2020-05-04 2020-05-04 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2265 Learner skills in open virtual mobility <p>Internationalisation has been a key theme in higher education (HE) for decades. Multiple initiatives across the world have contributed to creating offerings of high-quality online education, with collaborations across national borders. Two of the concepts that have proved to be influential are Virtual Mobility (VM) and Open Education (OE). Virtual mobility refers to study activities that students enrolled in HE in one country undertake online in other countries without physically moving. Such activities are certified and mutually acknowledged by participating institutions. Open education covers global initiatives increasing access to free online quality education, without or with alternative forms of certification.</p> <p>The research presented in this article identifies the learner skills and competences that are supported by Open Virtual Mobility (OpenVM), a new trend in online education that builds upon these two concepts. A group concept mapping study based on the contributions of experts in both VM and OE resulted in defining seven learner skills and competence areas including: intercultural skills and attitudes; networked learning; active self-regulated learner skills; media and digital literacy; autonomy-driven learning, interactive and collaborative learning in an authentic international environment and open-mindedness. The study provided input for further conceptualising of OpenVM as a bridge between VM and OE.</p> Kamakshi Rajagopal Olga Firssova Ilse Op de Beeck Elke Van der Stappen Slavi Stoyanov Piet Henderikx Ilona Buchem Copyright (c) 2020 Kamakshi Rajagopal, Olga Firssova, Ilse Op de Beeck, Elke Van der Stappen, Slavi Stoyanov, Piet Henderikx, Ilona Buchem 2020-03-19 2020-03-19 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2254 The seven principles of online learning: Feedback from faculty and alumni on its importance for teaching and learning <p>Effective online teaching and learning requires a carefully designed classroom that promotes student engagement with faculty, peers and course content. This research included an investigation of the importance of&nbsp;<em>faculty–student communication and collaboration</em>;&nbsp;<em>student–student communication and collaboration</em>;&nbsp;<em>active learning techniques</em>;&nbsp;<em>prompt feedback</em>;&nbsp;<em>appropriate time for tasks</em>;&nbsp;<em>high performance expectations</em>; and&nbsp;<em>respect for diverse learning styles (preferences)</em>&nbsp;(Chickering and Ehrmann&nbsp;<a href="#CIT0010_2319">1996</a>) to faculty in their online teaching and to alumni in their online learning. The participants were 14 college faculty and 111 alumni, from the same graduate program. A 45-item Likert survey and two open-ended questions were presented to the participants to explore the important factors contributing to their online teaching and learning. The results demonstrated that holding students to high standards of performance, academic honesty and professional conduct was the most important factor to both faculty in their online teaching and alumni in their online learning. Additionally, alumni valued engagement with their faculty more than engagement with other students or course content. Students need an online instructor who is organised and communicative in the online classroom, and faculty need a solidly designed online classroom, with engaged students who are timely in their work. An analysis of the findings with specific application to online teaching and learning is presented in this article.</p> Cynthia Janet Tanis Copyright (c) 2020 Cynthia Janet Tanis 2020-03-17 2020-03-17 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2319 Examining educational technology and research impact: the two roles of e-learning and related terms in the 2014 REF impact case studies <p>The need to demonstrate the impact of research has become an important issue in the Higher Education sector in the UK. This has been taken care of through the introduction of ‘impact case studies’ as part of the research excellence framework (REF). The aim of the study presented in this paper was to understand the role that educational technology (and related terms) played in the 2014 REF impact case studies, using the public online database of case studies as a data source. Searches for 11 educational technology-related terms yielded a sample of 125 unique case studies. Although this represents only 1.9% of the total case studies, educational technology is clearly playing a role. The cases comprised two major subgroups: those where educational technology was the focus of the research (mainly associated with cases in education and computer science), and those where educational technology was used as a route to achieving impact (mainly in health-related subjects). The findings have implications for the contributions that educational technology and educational technologists can make in enhancing and supporting this important issue within their institutions.</p> Katy Jordan Copyright (c) 2020 Katy Jordan 2020-03-10 2020-03-10 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2306 Becoming an open educator: towards an open threshold framework <p>In this article, we propose a cross-pollination of two prominent lines of educational thought: open education (OE) and threshold concepts (TCs). Open education has gained an increased profile through the growing popularity of open educational resources (OER) and massive online open courses (MOOCs). Educators who create or make use of such resources, or employ related open educational practices (OEP), are often suggested to have a transformative impact in educational settings. In recent years, educational research has increasingly discussed learning as a process of attaining or crossing certain conceptual thresholds, which involve such a significant shift that the learner eventually achieves a different and deeper understanding of core disciplinary knowledge, even a new identity. Of the eight characteristics of TCs identified in the core literature of this theory, we consider that three in particular offer the maximum potential for understanding the evolution of teachers towards the open educator identity: transformative, troublesome and liminal. This work presents a theoretical framework that includes the transformative impact on identity in the process of becoming an open educator, the troublesomeness inherent in this evolution and the liminal space through which the evolving teachers progress. It is argued that a focus on the development of open educator identity aligns with current reflective approaches to working on teachers’ professional identity, and at the same time supports a focus on teachers’ commitment to a democratic approach to education, which is necessary in neoliberal times.</p> Gemma Tur Leo Havemann Dawn Marsh Jeffrey M. Keefer Fabio Nascimbeni Copyright (c) 2020 Gemma Tur, Leo Havemann, Dawn Marsh, Jeffrey M. Keefer, Fabio Nascimbeni 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2338 A cross-sectional study of video game play habits and graduate skills attainment <p>Using a survey of higher education students (<em>N</em>&nbsp;= 2145), correlations between game play habits and the attainment of certain graduate skills or attributes (communication skill, adaptability and resourcefulness) are presented. Correlations between graduate attribute attainment and a range of demographic and educational factors, including age, gender, level of study and year of study, are also calculated. While it is shown that there is no significant relationship between existing game play habits and graduate attribute attainment, several broad observations are made. Students who do not play video games tended to score best, while those students who play games in a variety of modes (online and local cooperative play, team-based and other cooperative play) also scored better on measures of graduate attribute attainment. Assumptions about the development of graduate attributes over time are also challenged by the data presented here, which suggest there is little correlation between attribute attainment and years spent at university. The work suggests that, while video games may be used to develop graduate skills on campus, there is no strong correlation between existing game play habits and the attainment of certain transferable skills.</p> Matthew Barr Copyright (c) 2020 Matthew Barr 2020-02-28 2020-02-28 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2326 Lecture capture and peer working: exploring study practices through staff–student partnerships <p>As lecture capture technology and practice become ever more widespread in UK universities there is a growing body of literature that assesses the impact of these changes. However, there is still much to be understood about lecture capture and the full impact on student learning, especially in different institutional and subject contexts. This article describes two projects from a UK Russell Group University that worked in partnership with students to gain insights into the student experience regarding lecture capture. The article highlights insights gained in terms of&nbsp;<em>how</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>why</em>&nbsp;students use lecture recordings. This article focuses on one area in particular which has been less reported and warrants further investigation – students’ use of lecture recordings in collaborative settings. The article considers some practical implications of such insights and argues that a nuanced understanding regarding the way students use lecture recordings for learning is required. The article also highlights how educationists can harness student partnerships to further our understanding of the complex interplays between technology and student learning.</p> Geraint Evans Karl Luke Copyright (c) 2020 Geraint Evans, Karl Luke 2020-02-19 2020-02-19 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2314 Integration of mobile augmented reality (MAR) applications into biology laboratory: Anatomic structure of the heart <p>The purpose of the current study is to design and develop a sample Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) application addressing the anatomic structure of the heart in a way suitable for laboratory learning for pre-service science teachers to achieve learning by constructing information in biology instruction. The implementation of the MAR design activity was conducted with the participation of 30 pre-service teachers taking the biology laboratory course. The implementation process of the activity consists of four stages. The first stage includes the introduction of the MAR application program and marker; the second stage includes the use of the MAR application in a laboratory environment; the third stage includes the operation of dissection and the last stage includes the association of the MAR application with the operation of dissection and general evaluation. Then, semi-structured interviews were conducted by involving pre-service teachers and the data obtained from these interviews revealed that integration of heart dissection with MAR application helped the pre-service teachers to better understand the anatomic structure of the heart and the related concepts. Thus, a sample activity demonstrating how MAR, which is an instructional method with strong potential for reification and visualisation, can be integrated into the teaching of concepts in laboratory settings was developed.</p> Cuneyd Celik Gokhan Guven Nevin Kozcu Cakir Copyright (c) 2020 Cuneyd Celik, Gokhan Guven, Nevin Kozcu Cakir 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2355 The effect of adding same-language subtitles to recorded lectures for non-native, English speakers in e-learning environments <p>Globally, online (or e-learning) environments are growing in popularity in schools and universities. However, the language of instruction in these environments is mostly English. This is a problem as most of the students enrolling into online learning environments in South Africa are non-native English speakers. For these students, English is their second or sometimes third proficient language, which puts them at a disadvantage while accessing information for certain modules. A possible solution is to add same-language subtitles (SLS) to recorded lectures in these online environments to facilitate student learning. Unfortunately, previous studies provided no conclusive evidence of the advantages or disadvantages of adding SLS to a recorded lecture with regard to performance.</p> <p>The participants in this study<a id="Rfn0001_2340"></a><a href="#fn0001_2340"><sup>1</sup></a>&nbsp;were first-year students (<em>n</em>&nbsp;= 64) in Academic Literacy, majoring in Economics. They were non-native speakers of English with an average English proficiency and were divided into four groups. Each group watched the same recorded lecture in one of the four presentation modes (PMs) (audio, video and video with two types of subtitles). The findings of the study showed no significant effect either on performance or on perceived cognitive load for the students watching a recorded lecture with added subtitles compared to watching without subtitles.</p> Gordon Matthew Copyright (c) 2020 Gordon Matthew 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2340 Choice of device to view video lectures: an analysis of two independent cohorts of first-year university students <p>Video lectures and mobile learning devices have become prominent, but little is known about device choices for watching video lectures. The setting for this study, a university that provided perpetual access to personal computers and free tablet devices to all first-year students, provided a unique opportunity to study device choice in a setting where both tablets and personal computers were perpetually available. Weekly video lectures on a first-year module were made from October to April in two independent cohorts of students. YouTube analytics were used to record data on device usage for video lecture views. Tablets were initially used for almost 70% of views. However, tablet usage declined throughout the academic year, and tablets were overtaken by personal computers as the preferred device in the second half of the academic year. Findings suggest that an initial preference for using tablets to view video lectures lasts only a few months.</p> Jesca Namuddu Paul N. Watts Copyright (c) 2020 Jesca Namuddu, Paul N. Watts 2020-02-05 2020-02-05 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2324 Development of the learning to learn competence in the university context: flipped classroom or traditional method? <p>This study analyses the use of a flipped classroom to develop the ‘learning to learn’ competence in the university context. This research was conducted on a subject about Applied Teaching Methodology included in the Physical Activity and Sports Science degree at the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). A total of 110 university students (mean age 21.6 ± 3.0 years) participated in the research and were divided into two groups: one group (44 students) received an intervention based on the traditional method (with theoretical classes and resolved questions) and the other group (66 students) received an intervention using the flipped classroom method; self-perception of the level of development of the ‘learning to learn’ competence was analysed before and after the intervention. The design involved two groups that followed different types of teaching (traditional vs. flipped classroom) × two moments in time (before and after).</p> <p>This study did not find any significant differences between the traditional and flipped classroom method, in the perception of the development of the ‘learning to learn’ competence.</p> María Espada José Antonio Navia Patricia Rocu Maite Gómez-López Copyright (c) 2020 María Espada, José Antonio Navia, Patricia Rocu, Maite Gómez-López 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2251 Migration and transformation: a sociomaterial analysis of practitioners’ experiences with online exams <p>Many institutions are making the move from pen and paper to online examinations, but the literature offers relatively few critical reflections on the ramifications of such a shift. This research presents evidence of the ways in which the social and human practices of online exams are deeply entangled with the material and technological, and cautions against the reinscribing of essentialist or instrumentalist assumptions about technology in assessment practices. Through semi-structured interviews with eight practitioners in Norway, the Netherlands, the UK and Ireland, it analyses the impact, dimensions and limitations of two main discourses:&nbsp;<em>migration</em>, whereby exam technologies are assumed to be neutral instruments used independently by humans to realise their preordained intentions; and&nbsp;<em>transformation</em>, whereby the essential and inalienable qualities of technologies can be released to ‘transform’ or ‘enhance’ assessment. Its findings indicate that: (1) exam technologies are neither inherently neutral nor essentially transformational; (2) implementation projects underpinned by the migration discourse can be much more complex and resource-intensive than anticipated; and (3) ‘transformative’ change may be value-laden and driven by assumptions. Given the complex and entangled nature of online exams, practitioners are encouraged to think creatively about how assessment strategies align with educational goals, to consider the limitations of current discourses and to analyse critically the relational and performative roles of digital technologies.</p> Stuart Allan Copyright (c) 2020 Stuart Allan 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2279 Have a question? Just ask it: using an anonymous mobile discussion platform for student engagement and peer interaction to support large group teaching <p>This article analyses the pilot of an anonymous question and answer mobile application with a large cohort of undergraduate students (460) enrolled on an Operations Strategy Management module. The mobile application allowed students to pose anonymous questions to both peers and staff, create replies and vote on questions posted by other users. The aim of the pilot was to evaluate how this application could be used to enhance communication, engagement and student learning both inside and outside of class time to overcome some of the challenges presented by large cohort teaching. An initial evaluation was undertaken exploring both the analytics attached to the platform and a thematic analysis of the posts. The initial findings of the pilot were positive, with the majority of students installing and regularly accessing the application with use increasing over time. The questions posed demonstrated engagement beyond surface-level memorisation of module content, and there were indications that the application could be beneficial in supporting student community awareness and interaction within large cohorts.</p> Elaine Tan Adrian Small Paul Lewis Copyright (c) 2020 Elaine Tan, Adrian Small, Paul Lewis 2020-01-22 2020-01-22 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2323 E-learning educational atmosphere measure (EEAM): a new instrument for assessing e-students’ perception of educational environment <p>Universities assess their academic learning environment to improve students’ learning. Students’ experience in e-learning environment is different from face-to-face educational environment. So, in this study a specific valid and reliable instrument was devised for assessing perception of e-students from educational environment, that is, educational atmosphere. Firstly, we devised the primary instrument based on factors constituting educational atmosphere. Then Instrument’s content and construct validity were assessed. Also, Cronbach’s alpha and test–retest were used for studying the internal consistency and reliability of the instrument respectively. The final instrument named ‘e-learning educational atmosphere measure’ (EEAM) consisted of 40 items covering six factors, including programme effectiveness, teaching quality, ethics and professionalism, learner support, safety and convenience, and awareness of the rules, which accounted for 68.53% of variances. Content validity ratio was more than 0.51 and content validity index score of all questions was above 0.81. Test–retest reliability was 0.85 (<em>p</em>&nbsp;= 0.001) and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.943. Assessing educational atmosphere in e-learning settings by EEAM could provide managers and investors with useful information to settle an effective education system by prioritising the necessary changes.</p> Atekeh Mousavi Aeen Mohammadi Rita Mojtahedzadeh Mandana Shirazi Hamed Rashidi Copyright (c) 2020 Atekeh Mousavi, Aeen Mohammadi, Rita Mojtahedzadeh, Mandana Shirazi, Hamed Rashidi 2020-01-21 2020-01-21 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2308 Patterns in students’ usage of lecture recordings: a cluster analysis of self-report data <p>Students’ usage of lecture recordings can be characterised by usage frequency, repetitiveness and selectivity in watching, lecture attendance, and social context and location in which students watch the lecture recordings. At the University of Münster (Germany), the lecture recording service was evaluated over three semesters. The data were combined and used for a cluster analysis with the aim of being able to describe the students’ distinct usage patterns. The cluster analysis was performed using partitioning around medoids with Gower distance. Five clusters of students were identified, which differed mainly on the amount of lecture recordings watched, whether the lecture recordings were watched completely or partially, whether the recordings were watched once or multiple times, and the number of lectures the students missed. The five clusters are interpreted as representing different ways of utilising lecture recordings. The clustering provides a basis for investigating the usage of lecture recordings in the context of different approaches to learning and learning strategies.</p> Daniel Ebbert Stephan Dutke Copyright (c) 2020 Daniel Ebbert, Stephan Dutke 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2258 EDITORIAL: Special collection on mobile mixed reality 2019 update <p>This special collection of&nbsp;<em>Research in Learning Technology</em>&nbsp;explores the development of the state of the art of Mobile Mixed Reality (MMR) in education. The special collection was established in 2018 to provide research-informed exploration of this emergent and rapidly developing arena of educational technology through the lens of Scholarship Of Technology Enhanced Learning (SOTEL). The special collection update for 2019 includes four articles that cover self-efficacy and motivation of MMR users, analysis of student experiences of MMR, and a selection of case studies on designing and implementing MMR in educational contexts. The range of articles illustrates the further development of MMR as a platform for designing authentic learning environments in both formal and informal learning situations. The articles also highlight attempts to address the issue identified in the 2018 collection of a general lack of engagement with new learning theories and models in the use of MMR to design transformative learning experiences.</p> <p><em>This editorial is part of the special collection ‘Mobile Mixed Reality-Enhanced Learning’ edited by Thomas Cochrane, Vickel Narayan, James Birt, Helen Farley and Fiona Smart. Read all articles from this collection&nbsp;<a href="" target="_base">here</a>.</em></p> Thomas Cochrane Vickel Narayan James Birt Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Cochrane, Vickel Narayan, James Birt 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2424 A Framework for Mixed Reality Free-Choice, Self-Determined Learning <p>In this article, we present a theoretical framework for mixed reality (MR/XR) self-determined learning to enhance ecological literacy in free-choice educational settings. The framework emerged from a research study in New Zealand which aimed to explore how learning experiences which incorporate mobile technologies within free-choice learning settings can be designed to enhance learner development of marine ecological literacy. An understanding of how mobile technology can be integrated into the teaching and learning of sustainability education that incorporates free-choice learning contexts, such as visitor centres, is of strategic importance to both education outside the classroom and adult learning. Following a design-based research methodology, the framework is presented in the form of a set of design principles and guidelines, informed by key theories in ecological literacy and free-choice learning, heutagogy, bring your own device and self-determined learning. We briefly describe how the framework provided the foundation for an educational intervention. This paper aims to assist researchers and developers of MR/XR immersive learning environments to consider design principles and processes that can enhance learning outcomes within free-choice settings, such as museums and visitor centres.</p> <p><em>This article is part of the special collection Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More articles from this collection can be found <a href="">here</a>.</em></p> Claudio Aguayo Chris Eames Thomas Cochrane Copyright (c) 2020 Claudio Aguayo, Chris Eames, Thomas Cochrane 2020-03-09 2020-03-09 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2347 Exploring mixed reality based on self-efficacy and motivation of users <p>This study addresses the question of how to facilitate instruction and practice with virtual reality to mitigate the detrimental impact of cognitive load associated with use in simple procedural tasks. The study collected data from 63 college students aged 18 years and above from a university in the southern part of the USA. Each study participant completed a questionnaire that consisted of 22 questions using a seven-point Likert scale. The results show that there are no significant differences between motivation and self-efficacy as it relates to three selected activities: Roboraid, Tutorial and Freeplay. The opportunity for meaningful learning through the use of the mixed reality is enticing; there is value in exploring facilitation of these learning opportunities through redistribution of cognitive load.</p> <p><em>This article is part of the special collection Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More articles from this collection can be found <a href="">here</a>.</em></p> Kathy Essmiller Tutaleni I. Asino Ayodeji Ibukun Frances Alvarado-Albertorio Sarinporn Chaivisit Thanh Do Younglong Kim Copyright (c) 2020 Kathy Essmiller, Tutaleni I. Asino, Ayodeji Ibukun, Frances Alvarado-Albertorio, Sarinporn Chaivisit, Thanh Do, Younglong Kim 2020-02-21 2020-02-21 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2331 MESH360: a framework for designing MMR-enhanced clinical simulations <p>This article evaluates the results of two prototype iterations of a design-based research project that explores the application of mobile mixed reality (MMR) to enhance critical care clinical health education simulation in Paramedicine. The project utilises MMR to introduce critical elements of patient and practitioner risk and stress into clinical simulation learning scenarios to create more authentic learning environments. Subjective participant feedback is triangulated against participant biometric data to validate the level of participant stress introduced to clinical simulation through the addition of MMR. Results show a positive impact on the learning experience for both novice and professional paramedic practitioners. The article highlights the development of implementation and data triangulation methodologies that can be utilised to enhance wider clinical simulation contexts than the original context of Paramedicine education. We argue that our collaborative transdisciplinary design team model provides a transferable framework for designing MMR-enhanced clinical simulation environments.</p> <p><em>This article is part of the special collection Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More papers from this collection can be found&nbsp;<strong><a href="" target="_base">here.</a></strong></em></p> Thomas Cochrane Stephen Aiello Stuart Cook Claudio Aguayo Norm Wilkinson Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Cochrane, Stephen Aiello, Stuart Cook, Claudio Aguayo, Norm Wilkinson 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2357 Analysing construction student experiences of mobile mixed reality enhanced learning in virtual and augmented reality environments <p>Mixed reality (MR) and mobile visualisation methods have been identified as important technologies that could reimagine spatial information delivery and enhance higher education practice. However, there is limited research on the impact of mobile MR (MMR) within construction education and improvement of the learners’ experience. With new building information modelling (BIM) workflows being adopted within the architecture, engineering and construction industry, innovative MMR pedagogical delivery methods should be explored to enhance this information-rich spatial technology workflow. This paper outlines qualitative results derived through thematic analysis of learner reflections from two technology-enhanced lessons involving a lecture and a hands-on workshop focussed on MMR-BIM delivered within postgraduate construction education. Seventy participants across the two lessons recruited from an Australian university participated to answer the research question: ‘Does applied mobile mixed reality create an enhanced learning environment for students?’ The results of the analysis suggest that using MMR-BIM can result in an enhanced learning environment that facilitates unique learning experiences, engagement and motivation. However, the study outcome suggests that to understand the processes leading to these learning aspects, further empirical research on the topic is required.</p> <p><em>This paper is part of the special collection Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More papers from this collection can be found <strong><a href="">here</a>.</strong></em></p> Nikolche Vasilevski James Birt Copyright (c) 2020 Nikolche Vasilevski, James Birt 2020-01-16 2020-01-16 28 10.25304/rlt.v28.2329