Developing cross-cultural communicative competence via computer-assisted language learning: the case of pre-service ESL/EFL teachers
A review of the relevant literature strongly suggests that many, if not most, English as a Second or Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) teacher education programmes typically utilize concepts of culture and strategies for teaching and learning that are open to some cogent, but constructive, critiques from the perspective of critical educational theory. In addition, according to Wise (1995), throughout the last ten years the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education has required that colleges of teacher education must integrate technology into their curricula. In fact, ESL/EFL teacher education programmes are increasingly incorporating computer-based technologies and software into their curricula. However, this integration is often done in ways that seem to leave unquestioned the potential cultural and hegemonic ramifications of such technology (see, for example, Bowers, 1988; Jones, 1995; Morton, 1996; Murray, 1997; Sehlaoui, 1999).