Construction and evaluation of a web application for the educational process on Normal Distribution considering the science of data and machine learning
This mixed research aims at the planning, construction and implementation of a web application to facilitate the educational process on the Normal Distribution through the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) model. This study proposes the use of the PHP programming language (technological knowledge), the topics of Normal Distribution (content knowledge) and computer simulation (pedagogical knowledge) to create the Web Application on the Educational Process of Statistics (WAEPS). The sample consists of 61 students who took the subject Statistical Instrumentation for Business during the 2018 school year. The results of the linear regression (machine learning with 50% and 70% of training) indicate that the WAEPS facilitates the educational process on statistics. In fact, the WAEPS promotes the active role in the student, develops mathematical skills and facilitates the assimilation of knowledge about the calculation of upper and lower limits in the Normal Distribution by means of data simulation, interactivity and navigation. Even students consider that this web application is innovative and useful for the educational field. In addition, data science (decision tree technique) identifies various predictive models on the impact of the WAEPS in the educational process. Finally, the TPACK model is an ideal frame of reference to innovate the teaching–learning process through technological, pedagogical and content knowledge.
Archambault, L. M. & Barnett, J. H. (2010) ‘Revisiting technological pedagogical content knowledge: exploring the TPACK framework’, Computers & Education, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1656–1662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.07.009
Ay, Y., Karadag, E. & Acat, M. B. (2015) ‘The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge-practical (TPACKPractical) model: examination of its validity in the Turkish culture via structural equation modeling’, Computers & Education, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 97–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.04.017
Bhaumik, P. K. (2013) ‘Use of ICT in the classroom teaching of management’, Vision, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 245–252.
Brinkley-Etzkorn, K. E. (2018) ‘Learning to teach online: measuring the influence of faculty development training on teaching effectiveness through a TPACK lens’, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 28–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2018.04.004
Broadbent, J. (2017) ‘Comparing online and blended learner’s self-regulated learning strategies and academic performance’, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 24–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.01.004
Celina, H. & Campo, A. (2005) ‘Aproximación al uso del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach’, Revista colombiana de psiquiatría, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 572–580.
Chai, C. S., et al., (2011) ‘Modeling primary school pre-service teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for meaningful learning with information and communication technology (ICT)’, Computers & Education, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1184–1193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.007
Deschaine, M. E. & Whale, D. E. (2017) ‘Increasing student engagement in online educational leadership courses’, Journal of Educators Online, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1–12.
Dudaite, J. & Prakapas, R. (2017) ‘The experience of teachers in the application of activInspire interactive evaluation system in classroom: a case of teachers in Lithuania’, Informatics in Education, vol. 16, no. 2, pp.181–195.
Fornell, C. & Lacker, D. (1981) ‘Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error’, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 39–50.
Graham, C. R. (2011) ‘Theoretical considerations for understanding technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)’, Computers & Education, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 1953–1960. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.04.010
Jang, S. J. (2010) ‘Integrating the interactive whiteboard and peer coaching to develop the TPACK of secondary science teachers’, Computers & Education, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 1744–1751. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.07.020
Jang, S. J. & Tsai, M. F. (2012) ‘Exploring the TPACK of Taiwanese elementary mathematics and science teachers with respect to use of interactive whiteboards’, Computers & Education, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 327–338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.02.003
Karno, N. (2018) ‘Implementation of new communication tools to an online chemistry course’, Journal of educators online, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–6.
Khine, M. S., Ali, N. & Afari, E. (2017) ‘Exploring relationships among TPACK constructs and ICT achievement among trainee teachers’, Education and Information Technologies, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1605–1621.
Koh, J. H. & Divaharan, H. (2011) ‘Developing pre-service teachers’ technology integration expertise through the tpack-developing instructional model’, Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 35–58.
Kryukov, V. & Gorin, A. (2017) ‘Digital technologies as education innovation at universities’, Australian Educational Computing, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 1–16.
Kushner-Benson, S. N. & Ward, C. L. (2013) ‘Teaching with technology: using tpack to understand teaching expertise in online higher education’, Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 153–172.
Lee, K. (2017) ‘Rethinking the accessibility of online higher education: a historical review’, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 15–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.01.001
Liu, Q., Zhang, S. & Wang, Q. (2015) ‘Surveying Chinese in-service K12 teachers’ technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge’, Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 55–74.
López-Vargas, O., Duarte-Suárez, L. & Ibáñez-Ibáñez, J. (2017) ‘Teacher’s computer self-efficacy and its relationship with cognitive style and TPACK’, Improving Schools, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 264–277.
Magen-Nagar, N. & Steinberger, P. (2017) ‘Characteristics of an innovative learning environment according to students’ perceptions: actual versus preferred’, Learning Environments Research, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 307–323.
Manwaring, K. C., et al., (2017) ‘Investigating student engagement in blended learning settings using experience sampling and structural equation modeling’, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 21–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.06.002
Mecoli, S. (2017) ‘The influence of the pedagogical content knowledge theoretical framework on research on preservice teacher education’, Journal of Education, vol. 193, no. 3, pp. 21–27.
Mishra, P. & Koehler, M. J. (2006) ‘Technological pedagogical content knowledge: a new framework for teacher knowledge’, Teachers College Record, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 1017–1054.
Mouza, C., et al., (2014) ‘Investigating the impact of an integrated approach to the development of preservice teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)’, Computers & Education, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 206–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2013.09.020
Murphy, C. A. & Stewart, J. C. (2017) ‘On-campus students taking online courses: factors associated with unsuccessful course completion’, The Internet and Higher Education, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2017.03.001
Naraian, S. & Surabian, M. (2014) ‘An alternative frame for preparing teachers to use assistive technology’, Teacher Education and Special Education, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 330–346.
Paiva, R. C., Ferreira, M. S. & Frade, M. M. (2017) ‘Intelligent tutorial system based on personalized system of instruction to teach or remind mathematical concepts’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 370–381.
Phillips, M. (2017) ‘Processes of practice and identity shaping teachers’ TPACK enactment in a community of practice’, Education and Information Technologies, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1771–1796.
Salas Rueda, R. A. (2018) ‘Uso del servicio en la nube GeoGebra durante el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje sobre las matemáticas’, Revista iberoamericana para la investigación y el desarrollo educativo, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 23–52.
Salas Rueda, R. A. & Salas Silis, J. A. (2018) ‘Simulador Logic.ly ¿Herramienta tecnológica para facilitar el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje sobre las Matemáticas?’, Revista Dilemas Contemporáneos: Educación, Política y Valores, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1–25.
Santoso, H. B., et al., (2018) ‘The development of a learning dashboard for lecturers: a case study on a student centered e-learning environment’, Journal of Educators Online, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 1–14.
Tomte, C., et al., (2015) ‘Educating online student teachers to master professional digital competence: the TPACK-framework goes online’, Computers & Education, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 26–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2015.01.005
Witte, K., Haelermans, C. & Rogge, N. (2015) ‘Computer-assisted math learning program’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 314–329.
Wu, Y. (2016) ‘Factors impacting students’ online learning experience in a learner-centred course’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 416–429.
Yurdakul, I. K., et al., (2012) ‘The development, validity and reliability of TPACK-deep: a technological pedagogical content knowledge scale’, Computers & Education, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 964–977. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.012
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors contributing to Research in Learning Technology retain the copyright of their article and at the same time agree to publish their articles under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, under the condition that appropriate credit is given, that a link to the license is provided, and that you indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.