Exploring children experience with educational mobile technology
The purpose of this study is to explore and analyse the user experience (UX) of Arabic educational and entertainment applications designed for children aging 8–10 years. This paper reports the results of an experimental study conducted on a sample of 53 children in two elementary schools in Qalqilya and Nablus, Palestine. The context of the current study is different from previous studies that were conducted in a western environment in terms of knowledge, awareness, demographic changes and background variables. Qualitative methods captured the enjoyable and attractive parts of the software being used. The qualitative content analysis showed that participants’ enjoyment using the system was quite different. During sessions, children showed much excitement and interest while working with the math app more than the science app. However, girls were less interested to use the math application compared with their use of the device itself. Following Hassenzahl’s model, the descriptions of UXs were also categorised into two categories: pragmatic and hedonic; the functionality, technical and ease of use aspects of UX of both the tablet and the math application were categorised as pragmatic. Enjoyable, exciting, confusing and upsetting experiences were categorised as hedonic. Male participants were more familiar with the use of mobile devices than female participants. The results of the present study showed that gender, culture and religion are important factors that affect children’s experience to use new technological devices since three female participants were reluctant to use the tablet especially due to cultural and religious factors.
Alhussayen, A., Alrashed, W. & Mansor, E. I. (2015) ‘Evaluating the user experience of playful interactive learning interfaces with children’, Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 3, pp. 2318–2324. doi: 10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.378
Aziz, N. A. A. (2013) ‘Children’s interaction with tablet applications: gestures and interface design’, Children, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 447–450.
Bargas-Avila, J. A. & Hornbæk, K. (2011) ‘Old wine in new bottles or novel challenges: a critical analysis of empirical studies of user experience’, Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM, New York, USA, pp. 2689–2698. doi: 10.1145/1978942.1979336
Bevan, N. (2009) ‘Extending quality in use to provide a framework for usability measurement’, Proceedings of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-02806-9_2
Boschman, F., McKenney, S. & Voogt, J. (2015) ‘Exploring teachers’ use of TPACK in design talk: The collaborative design of technology-rich early literacy activities’, Computers & education, 82, pp. 250–262. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.11.010
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) ‘Using thematic analysis in psychology’, Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), pp. 77–101.
Bruckman, A., Bandlow, A. & Forte, A. (2002) HCI for Kids.
Chang, C. K. (2008) ‘Usability comparison of pen-based input for young children on mobile devices’, Sensor Networks, Ubiquitous and Trustworthy Computing, 2008. SUTC’08. IEEE International Conference, IEEE, Taiwan, pp. 531–536. doi: 10.1109/sutc.2008.8
Chau, C. L. (2014) Positive Technological Development for Young Children in the Context of Children’s Mobile Apps, Doctoral dissertation, Tufts University.
De Angeli, A., Sutcliffe, A. & Hartmann, J. (2006) ‘Interaction, usability and aesthetics: What influences users’ preferences?’, Proceedings of the 6th conference on Designing Interactive systems, ACM, New York, NY, pp. 271–280. doi: 10.1145/1142405.1142446
Deng, S., et al., (2015) ‘Understanding the factors influencing user experience of social question and answer services’, Information Research: An International Electronic Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, p. 4.
Druin, A. (2002) ‘The role of children in the design of new technology’, Behaviour and Information Technology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–25. doi: 10.1080/01449290110108659
Glanznig, M. (2012) ‘User experience research: modelling and describing the subjective’, Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems: INDECS, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 235–247. doi: 10.7906/indecs.10.3.3
Han, D. I., Tom Dieck, M. C. & Jung, T. (2017) ‘User experience model for augmented reality applications in urban heritage tourism’, Journal of Heritage Tourism, vol. 13, pp. 1–16. doi: 10.1080/1743873x.2016.1251931
Harbich, S. & Hassenzahl, M. (2017) ‘User experience in the work domaIn: a longitudinal field study’, Interacting with Computers, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 306–324. doi: 10.1093/iwc/iww022
Hassenzahl, M. (2004) ‘The interplay of beauty, goodness, and usability in interactive products’, Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 319–349. doi: 10.1207/s15327051hci1904_2
Hassenzahl, M. (2005) ‘The quality of interactive products: hedonic needs, emotions and experience’, in Encyclopedia of Human Computer Interaction. Idea Group.
Hassenzahl, M. (2008) ‘User experience (UX): towards an experiential perspective on product quality’, in Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association Francophone d’Interaction Homme- Machine on - IHM ’08, ACM, New York, USA, p. 11. doi: 10.1145/1512714
Hassenzahl, M. (2010) ‘Experience design: technology for all the right reasons’, Synthesis Lectures on Human-Centered Informatics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–95. doi: 10.2200/s00261ed1v01y201003hci008
Hassenzahl, M. & Tractinsky, N. (2006) ‘User experience – A research agenda’, Behavior & Information Technology, vol. 25, no. 2. pp. 91–97. doi: 10.1080/01449290500330331
Hornbæk, K. & Hertzum, M. (2017) ‘Technology acceptance and user experience: a review of the experiential component in HCI’, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), vol. 24, no. 5, p. 33. doi: 10.1145/3127358
ISO DIS 9241-210. (2010) Ergonomics of Human System Interaction -Part 210: human-Centred Design for Interactive Systems (formerly known as 13407), International Standardization Organization (ISO), Geneve, Switzerland.
Itmazi, J. & Tmeizeh, M. (2008) ‘Blended e-learning approach for traditional Palestinian Universities’, IEEE Multidisciplinary Engineering Education Magazine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 156–162.
Karapanos, E. (2013) ‘User experience over time’, Modeling users’ experiences with interactive systems, pp. 57–83, Springer, Berlin. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-31000-3_4
Karapanos, E., Hassenzahl, M. & Martens, J.B., 2008, User Experience over Time, CHI 2008, April 5 – April 10, 2008, Florence, Italy, ACM, 978-1-60558-012-8/08/04. doi: 10.1145/1358628.1358891
Khlaif, Z. (2018b) ‘Teachers’ perceptions of factors affecting their adoption and acceptance of mobile technology in K-12 settings’, Computers in the Schools, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 49–67. doi: 10.1080/07380569.2018.1428001
Khlaif, Z., Gok, F. & Kouraïchi, B. (2019) ‘How teachers in middle schools design technology integration activities’, Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 78, pp. 141–150. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2018.11.014
Khlaif, Z. N. (2018a) ‘Factors influencing teachers’ attitudes toward mobile technology integration in K-12’, Technology, Knowledge and Learning, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 161–175. doi: 10.1007/s10758-017-9311-6
Khlaif, Z. N. & Farid, S. (2018) ‘Transforming learning for the smart learning paradigm: lessons learned from the Palestinian initiative’, Smart Learning Environments, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 12. doi: 10.1186/s40561-018-0059-9
Kim, J., Kim, J. & Moon, J. Y. (2013) ‘Does age matter in mobile user experience? Impact of age on relative importance of antecedents of mobile user experience’, PACIS, p. 189.
Knijnenburg, B. P., et al., (2012) ‘Explaining the user experience of recommender systems’, User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, vol. 22, no. 4–5, pp. 441–504. doi: 10.1007/s11257-011-9118-4
Kujala, S., et al., (2011) ‘UX Curve: a method for evaluating long-term user experience’, Interacting with Computers, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 473–483.
Marshall, C. & Rossman, G. B. (2011) ‘Managing, analyzing, and interpreting data’, C. Marshall & GB Rossman, Designing Qualitative Research, vol. 5, pp. 205–227.
McCarthy, J. & Wright, P. C. (2004) Technology as Experience, MIT Press, Boston, USA. doi: 10.7551/mitpress/6687.003.0011
McKnight, L. & Cassidy, B. (2012) ‘Children’s interaction with mobile touch-screen devices: experiences and guidelines for design’, in Social and Organizational Impacts of Emerging Mobile Devices: Evaluating Use, Hershey, PA, USA, p. 72. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0194-9.ch004
Minge, M. (2008) ‘Dynamics of user experience’, Proceedings of the Workshop on Research Goals and Strategies for Studying User Experience and Emotion, No rdiCHI, vol. 8.
Ozok, A. A., Fan, Q. & Norcio, A. F. (2010) Behaviour & Information Technology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 57–83. doi: 10.1080/01449290903004012
Page, T. (2013) ‘Use of mobile device apps in product design’, International Journal of Green Computing (IJGC), vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 18–34. doi: 10.4018/jgc.2013010102
Partala, T. & Saari, T. (2015) ‘Understanding the most influential user experiences in successful and unsuccessful technology adoptions’, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 53, pp. 381–395. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.012
Piaget, J. (1970) Science of education and the psychology of the child. Trans. D. Coltman. Orion Press, New York.
Plowman, L. & Stevenson, O. (2012) ‘Using mobile phone diaries to explore children’s everyday lives’, Childhood, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 539–553. doi: 10.1177/0907568212440014
Provost, G. & Robert, J. M. (2013) ‘The dimensions of positive and negative user experiences with interactive products’, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 8012 LNCS, no. PART 1, pp. 399–408. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-39229-0_43
Rahman, M. S. A., Ali, N. M. & Mohd, M. (2013) ‘A study on the naturalness of gesture-based interaction for children’, in Advances in Visual Informatics. IVIC 2013, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, eds H.B. Zaman, P. Robinson, P. Olivier, T.K. Shih & S. Velastin, Springer, Cham, vol. 8237. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-02958-0_65
Roto, V. & Kaasinen, E. (2008) ‘The second international workshop on mobile internet user experience’, in Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Human computer interaction with mobile devices and services, ACM, New York, pp. 571–573. doi: 10.1145/1409240.1409354
Roto, V., Obrist, M. & Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, K. (2009) ‘User experience evaluation methods in academic and industrial contexts’, in Interact 2009 conference, User Experience Evaluation Methods in Product Development (UXEM’09), Uppsala, Sweden. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-03658-3_141
Roto, V., et al., (2011) ‘Bringing clarity to the concept of user experience’, Available at: www.allaboutux.org/files/UX-WhitePaper.pdf
Schaik, P. V. & Ling, J. (2008) ‘Modelling user experience with web sites: usability, hedonic value, beauty and goodness’, Interacting with Computers, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 419–432. doi: 10.1016/j.intcom.2008.03.001
Shraim, K. & Khlaif, Z. (2010) ‘An e-learning approach to secondary education in Palestine: opportunities and challenges’, Information Technology for Development, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 159–173. doi: 10.1080/02681102.2010.501782
Shaqour, A. Z. (2014) ‘Students’ readiness towards M-Learning: a case study of pre-service teachers in Palestine’, Journal of Educational and Social Research, vol. 4, no. 6, p. 19. doi: 10.5901/jesr.2014.v4n6p19
Sharp, H., Rogers, Y. & Preece, J. (2007) Interaction design: beyond human-computer interaction. Wiley & Son, USA.
Silvennoinen, J., Vogel, M. & Kujala, S. (2014) ‘Experiencing visual usability and aesthetics in two mobile application contexts’, Journal of Usability Studies, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 46–62.
Thüring, M. & Mahlke, S. (2007) ‘Usability, aesthetics, and emotions in human-technology interaction’, International Journal of Psychology, vol. 42, pp. 253–264. doi: 10.1080/00207590701396674
Tuch, A. N, et al., (2012) ‘Is beautiful really usable? Toward understanding the relation between usability, aesthetics, and affect in HCI’, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1596–1607. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.03.024
Utair, N. (2015) The Impact of Smart Devices on Raising Children, Al Quds Open University, Ramallah.
Van der Heijden, H. (2004) ‘User acceptance of hedonic information systems’, MIS quarterly, pp. 695–704. doi: 10.2307/25148660
Walsh, T., et al., (2014) ‘Axe UX: exploring long-term user experience with iScale and AttrakDiff’, in Proceedings of the 18th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Media Business, Management, Content & Services, ACM, pp. 32–39. doi: 10.1145/2676467.2676480
Wea’am, A, A. & Alhussayen, A. A. (2015) ‘Examining the User Experience (UX) of children’s interaction with Arabic interfaces in educational learning contexts’, in International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Springer, Cham, pp. 349–354. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-21380-4_59
Zucker, A. A. & Light, D. (2009) ‘Laptop programs for students’, Science, vol. 323, no. 5910, pp. 82–85. doi: 10.1126/science.1167705
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors contributing to Research in Learning Technology retain the copyright of their article and at the same time agree to publish their articles under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, under the condition that appropriate credit is given, that a link to the license is provided, and that you indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.