Development of the learning to learn competence in the university context: flipped classroom or traditional method?
This study analyses the use of a flipped classroom to develop the ‘learning to learn’ competence in the university context. This research was conducted on a subject about Applied Teaching Methodology included in the Physical Activity and Sports Science degree at the Polytechnic University of Madrid (Spain). A total of 110 university students (mean age 21.6 ± 3.0 years) participated in the research and were divided into two groups: one group (44 students) received an intervention based on the traditional method (with theoretical classes and resolved questions) and the other group (66 students) received an intervention using the flipped classroom method; self-perception of the level of development of the ‘learning to learn’ competence was analysed before and after the intervention. The design involved two groups that followed different types of teaching (traditional vs. flipped classroom) × two moments in time (before and after).
This study did not find any significant differences between the traditional and flipped classroom method, in the perception of the development of the ‘learning to learn’ competence.
Abeysekera, L. & Dawson, P. (2015) ‘Motivation and cognitive load in the flipped classroom: definition, rationale and a call for research’, Higher Education Research & Development, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–14. doi: 10.1080/07294360.2014.934336
Ary, C., et al., (2010) Introduction to Research in Education, 8th edn., Wadsworth, Belmont, CA.
Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2014) Dale la vuelta a tu clase: lleva tu clase a cada estudiante, en cualquier momento y cualquier lugar (Flip your class: take your class to each student, at any time and in any place), Fundación Santa María-Ediciones SM, Madrid.
Betihavas, V., et al., (2016) ‘The evidence for “flipping out”: a systematic review of the flipped classroom in nursing education’, Nurse Education Today, vol. 36, pp. 15–21. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2015.12.010
Carretero, M. R. & Fuentes, M. (2010) ‘La competencia de aprender a aprender (The “learning to learn” competence)’, Aula de Innovación Educativa, vol. 192, pp. 7–10.
Chen, Y., et al., (2014) ‘Is FLIP enough? Or should we use the FLIPPED model instead?’, Computers & Education, vol. 79, pp. 16–27. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.07.004
Chis, A. E., et al., (2018) ‘Investigating flipped classroom and problem-based learning in a programming module for computing conversion course’, Educational Technology & Society, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 232–247.
Climént, J. B. (2010) ‘Reflexiones sobre la Educación Basada en Competencias (Reflections on competence-based education)’, Revista Complutense de Educación, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 91–106.
Cohen, J. (1977) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Academic Press, New York.
European Commission (2018) Council Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning, Official Journal of the European Union, Brussels.
Fernández-March, A. (2006) ‘Metodologías activas para la formación de competencias (Active methodologies for the training of competences)’, Educatio siglo XXI, vol. 24, pp. 35–56.
Herrero, R. M. (2014) ‘El papel de las TIC en el aula universitaria para la formación en competencias del alumnado (The role of ICT in the University classroom for training the students in competences)’, Pixel-Bit. Revista de Medios y Educación, vol. 45, pp. 173–188. doi: 10.12795/pixelbit.2014.i45.12
Hofmann, P. (2008) ‘Learning to learn: a key-competence for all adults?’, Convergence, vol. 41, no. 2–3, pp. 173–181.
Kashada, A., Li, H. & Su, C. (2017) ‘Adoption of flipped classrooms in K-12 education in developing countries: challenges and obstacles’, International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 147–157. doi: 10.3991/ijet.v12i10.7308
Khanova, J., et al., (2015) ‘Student experiences across multiple flipped courses in a single curriculum’, Medical Education, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1038–1048. doi: 10.1111/medu.12807
Kim, J. Y. (2018) ‘A study of students’ perspectives on a flipped learning model and associations among personality, learning styles and satisfaction’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 314–324. doi: 10.1080/14703297.2017.1286998
Lage, M. J., Platt, G. J. & Treglia, M. (2000) ‘Inverting the classroom: a gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment, Journal of Economic Education, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 30–43. doi: 10.1080/00220480009596759
Lee, H. W., Lim, K. Y. & Grabowski, B. L. (2010) ‘Improving self-regulation, learning strategy use, and achievement with metacognitive feedback’, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 629–648. doi: 10.1007/s11423-010-9153-6
Morgan, H., et al., (2015) ‘The flipped classroom for medical students’, The Clinical Teacher, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 155–160. doi: 10.1111/tct.12328
Muñiz, J., Elosua, P. & Hambleton, R. (2013) ‘International test commission guidelines for test translation and adaptation: second edition’, Psicothema, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 151–157. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2013.24
Muñoz-San Roque, I., et al., (2016) ‘Autopercepción del nivel de desarrollo de la competencia de Aprender a Aprender en el contexto universitario: propuesta de un instrumento de evaluación (Self-perceived level of development of the “learning to learn” competence in the university context: a proposed measuring instrument)’, Revista de Investigación Educativa, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 369–383. doi: 10.6018/rie.34.2.235881
O'Flaherty, J. & Phillips, C. (2015) ‘The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: a scoping review’, Internet and Higher Education, vol. 25, pp. 85–95. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.02.002
Russell, T. L. (1999) The No Significant Difference Phenomenon: As Reported in 355 Research Reports, Summaries and Papers, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
Rychen, D. S. & Salganik, L. H. (eds.) (2001) Defining and Selecting Key Competencies, Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, Ashland, OH.
Salcines, I., et al., (2018) ‘Validación de la Escala de Autopercepción de Competencias Transversales y Profesionales de Estudiantes de Educación Superior. (Validation of Self-Perception Scale of Transversal and Professional Competences of Higher Education Students)’, Profesorado. Revista de Currículum y Formación de Profesorado, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 31–51. doi: 10.30827/profesorado.v22i3.7989
Salmerón, H. & Gutierrez-Braojos, C. (2012) ‘La competencia de aprender a aprender y el aprendizaje autorregulado. posicionamientos teóricos. (The learning to learn competence and self-regulated learning. Positioning theorists)’, Profesorado. Revista de Currículum y Formación de Profesorado, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5–13.
Shah, R. K. & Barkas, L. A. (2018) ‘Analysing the impact of e-learning technology on students’ engagement, attendance and performance’, Research in Learning Technology, vol. 26, no. 210. p. 2070. doi: 10.25304/rlt.v26.2070
Shiau, S., et al., (2018) ‘Evaluation of a flipped classroom approach to learning introductory epidemiology’, BMC Medical Education, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 63. doi: 10.1186/s12909-018-1150-1
Trier, U. P. (2003) ‘Twelve countries contributing to DeSeCo: a summary report’, in Definition and Selection of key Competences. Contributions to the Second DeSeCo Symposium, eds, D. Rychen, L. Salganik, & M. McLaughlin, Swiss Federal Statistical Office, Neuchâtel, pp. 27–64.
Voogt, J. & Roblin, N. P. (2012) ‘A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: implications for national curriculum policies’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 299–321. doi: 10.1080/00220272.2012.668938
Zainuddin, Z. & Attaran, M. (2016) ‘Malaysian students’ perceptions of flipped classroom: a case study’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 660–670. doi: 10.1080/14703297.2015.1102079
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Authors contributing to Research in Learning Technology retain the copyright of their article and at the same time agree to publish their articles under the terms of the Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) allowing third parties to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, and to remix, transform, and build upon the material, for any purpose, even commercially, under the condition that appropriate credit is given, that a link to the license is provided, and that you indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.