Increasing the attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (ARCS) of students through interactive science learning multimedia

  • Herianto Educational Science Graduate School, Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Insih Wilujeng Science Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Yogyakarta State University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: attention, confidence, relevance, satisfaction, interactive science learning multimedia


The use of interactive multimedia has the potential to create a high-quality learning environment. The key elements of various media, user control over information delivery and interactivity can be used to improve the learning process by creating an integrated learning environment. This study aims to determine the increase in students’ attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (ARCS) before and after using interactive science learning multimedia. This study collected data from 30 students aged 12–13 years from a junior high school in Yogyakarta City, Indonesia. Data collection was done using learning motivation questionnaires. Data analysis techniques used paired sample t-test. The results of this study are that the learning motivation aspects of ARCS after using interactive science learning multimedia have increased significantly. However, the relevance aspect of students’ learning motivation did not increase significantly.


Download data is not yet available.


Alexander, J., et al., (2019) ‘Technology-enhanced learning in physiotherapy education: student satisfaction and knowledge acquisition of entry-level students in the United Kingdom’, Research in Learning Technology, vol. 27, pp. 1–14. doi: 10.25304/rlt.v27.2073

Annamalai, S. (2016) ‘Implementing ARCS model to design a motivating multimedia E-book for polytechnic ESL classroom’, Journal of Telecommunication, Electronic and Computer Engineering, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 57–60. Available at:

Arends. (2012) Learning to Teach, 9th edn, McGraw Hill Company, New York.

Aris, B., et al., (2006) ‘Learning “Goal Programming” using an interactive multimedia courseware: design factors and students’ preferences’, Malaysian Online Journal of Instructional Technology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 85–95. Available at:

Barger, A. & Byrd, K. (2011) ‘Motivation and computer-based instructional design’, Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives in Education, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–9. Available at:

Cairncross, S. & Mannion, M. (2001) ‘Interactive multimedia and learning: realising the benefits’, Innovations in Education and Teaching International, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 156–164. doi: 10.1080/14703290110035428

De Sousa, L., Richter, B. & Nel, C. (2017) ‘The effect of multimedia use on the teaching and learning of Social Sciences at tertiary level : a case study’, Yesterday and Today, vol. July, no. 17, pp. 1–22. doi: 10.17159/2223-0386/2017/n17a1

Domagk, S., Schwartz, R. N. & Plass, J. L. (2010) ‘Interactivity in multimedia learning: an integrated model’, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 26. no. 5, pp. 1024–1033. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.003

Fahmi, S., Priwantoro, S. W. & Cahdriyana, R. A. (2018) ‘Development and effectiveness of interactive learning media for mathematical logic and set towards students’ self confident on computer’, International Journal of Engineering & Technology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 96–99. doi: 10.14419/ijet.v7i4.30.22027.

Faryadi, Q. (2012) ‘The architecture of interactive multimedia courseware: a conceptual and an empirical-based design process: phase one’, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 199–206. Available at:

Ghavifekr, S. & Rosdy, W. A. W. (2016) ‘Teaching and learning with technology: effectiveness of ICT integration in schools’, International Journal of Research in Education and Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 175–191. Available at:

Ismail, O. & Basri, N. (2012) Developing Reading Skills Using an Interactive-Multimedia Reading Comprehension Package (Imrcp), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Available at:

Keller, J. (2010) Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: the ARCS Model Approach, Springer Science Business Media, New York.

Keller, J. M. (1987) ‘Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design’, Journal of Instructional Development, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 2–10. doi: 10.1007/BF02905780

Khedif, L. Y. B., Engkamat, A. & Jack, S. (2014) ‘The evaluation of users’ satisfaction towards the multimedia elements in a courseware’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 123, pp. 249–255. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1421

Lambert, J. & Cuper, P. (2008) ‘Multimedia technologies and familiar spaces : 21st-century teaching for 21st-century learners’, Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 264–276. Available at:

Li, K. & Keller, J. M. (2018) ‘Use of the ARCS model in education: a literature review’, Computers and Education, vol. 122, pp. 54–62. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.03.019

Liu, C. & Elms, P. (2019) ‘Animating student engagement: the impacts of cartoon instructional videos on learning experience’, Research in Learning Technology, vol. 27, pp. 1–31. doi: 10.25304/rlt.v27.2124

Malik, S. (2014) ‘Effectiveness of arcs model of motivational design to overcome non completion rate of students’, Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 194–200. Available at:

Means, T., Jonassen, D. & Dwyer, F. (1997) ‘Enhancing relevance: embedded ARCS strategies vs. purpose. educational technology research and development’, Etr&D, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 45, 5–17. Available at:

Netis, N. (2001) What Features of Interactive Multimedia Technology Maximise the Motivation of Primary School Aged Children Learning Music Theory ?, Edith Cowan University. Available at:

Nusir, S., et al., (2011) ‘Designing an interactive multimedia learning system for the children of primary schools in Jordan’, IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON 2011, IEEE, Amman, Jordan, pp. 45–51. doi: 10.1109/EDUCON.2011.5773111

Nusir, S., et al., (2013) ‘Studying the impact of using multimedia interactive programs on children’s ability to learn basic math skills’, E-Learning and Digital Media, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 305–319. doi: 10.2304/elea.2013.10.3.305

Ozdamli, F. (2018) ‘ARCS motivation model adapted to gamification applications on a programming language course’, International Journal of Learning Technology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 327–351. doi: 10.1504/IJLT.2018.098502

Qurat-ul-Ain, Q.-A., et al., (2019) ‘A review of technological tools in teaching and learning computer science’, Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1–17. doi: 10.29333/ejmste/109611

Rajendra, I. M. & Sudana, I. M. (2018) ‘The influence of interactive multimedia technology to enhance achievement students on practice skills in mechanical technology’, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 953, pp. 1–5. doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/953/1/012104

Riduwan. (2014) Dasar-Sasar Statistika, Alfabeta Press, Bandung.

Small, R. V. & Gluck, M. (1994) ‘The relationship of motivational conditions to effective instructional attributes: a magnitude scaling approach’, Educational Technology, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 33–40. Available at:

Taurina, Z. (2015) ‘Students’ motivation and learning outcomes: significant factors in internal study quality assurance system’, International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education (IJCDSE), vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 2625–2630. Available at:

Thiagarajan, S., Semmel, D. S. & Semmel, M. I. (1974) Instructional Development for Training Teachers of Exceptional Children: A Sourcebook, The Council for Exceptional Children, Virginia.

Visser, J. & Keller, J. M. (1990) ‘The clinical use of motivational messages: an inquiry into the validity of the ARCS model of motivational design’, Instructional Science, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 467–500. doi: 10.1007/BF00119391

Wiana, W., Barliana, M. S. & Riyanto, A. A. (2018) ‘The effectiveness of using interactive multimedia based on motion graphic in concept mastering enhancement and fashion designing skill in digital format’, International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 4–20. doi: 10.3991/ijet.v13i02.7830

Zhang, D. (2005) ‘Interactive multimedia- based e-learning: a study of effectiveness’, American Journal of Distance Education, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 149–162. doi: 10.1207/s15389286ajde1903

Zheng, B., et al., (2014) ‘Laptop use, interactive science software, and science learning among at-risk students’, Journal of Science Education and Technology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 591–603. doi: 10.1007/s10956-014-9489-5
How to Cite
Herianto, & Wilujeng I. (2021). Increasing the attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction (ARCS) of students through interactive science learning multimedia. Research in Learning Technology, 29.
Original Research Articles