Learning experience design for augmented reality

  • Betül Czerkawski Department of Applied Technology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.
  • Margherita Berti Department of Second Language Acquisition and Teaching, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, U.S.
Keywords: successive approximation model, emerging learning technologies, online learning, mixed reality


Recent years have seen a growing interest in augmented reality (AR) technologies due to their potential for simulating real-life situations and creating authentic learning tasks. Studies have shown that AR enables engaging and interactive learning experiences (e.g. Bressler and Bodzin 2013; Klopfer and Sheldon 2010) and can benefit student learning (e.g. Bonner and Reinders 2018; Siegle 2019). However, although research in AR for education is not scarce, educators often do not have a learning experience design (LXD) approach that is supported by the recent findings of learning sciences and instructional design models. To bridge this gap, the present study introduces an AR-learning prototype developed by using SAM I (Successive Approximation Model I), and the Threshold Concepts Framework, employed for meaningful integration of AR into the learning process. A pre-survey and a post-survey method were utilised in the data gathering process to gauge students’ experience with the AR module. The findings show that the majority of students have not had educational experiences with AR prior to the study, and they struggled to find ways to incorporate this technology into their content areas in a meaningful way. Nonetheless, participants realised the value of AR and stated that they most likely would use this technology in the future. Based on the findings, the authors present a set of suggestions for instructors and LXDs, and provide recommendations for future research.

This article is part of the special collection: Mobile Mixed Reality Enhanced Learning edited by Thom Cochrane, James Birt, Helen Farley, Vickel Narayan and Fiona Smart. More papers from this collection can be found here.


Download data is not yet available.


Allen, M. (2012) Leaving ADDIE for SAM: An Agile Model for Developing Best Learning Experiences, American Society for Training and Development, Alexandria, VA.

Anderson, T. (2016) ‘Theories with learning with emerging technologies’, in Emergence and Innovation in Digital Learning: Foundations and Applications, ed. G. Veletsianos, Athabasca University Press, Edmonton, Alberta, pp. 35–50.

Bacca, J., et al., (2014) ‘Augmented reality trends in education: a systematic review of research and applications’, Educational Technology & Society, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 133–149.

Barrett, R., et al., (2018) ‘Social and tactile mixed reality increases student engagement in undergraduate lab activities’, Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 95, no. 10, pp. 1755–1762. doi: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b00212

Bekele, M., et al., (2018) ‘A survey of augmented, virtual and mixed reality for cultural heritage’, Journal on Computing and Cultural Heritage (JOCCH), vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1–36. doi: 10.1145/3145534

Birt, J. & Cowling, M. (2017) ‘Toward future “mixed reality” learning spaces for STEAM education’, International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1–16.

Bonner, E. & Reinders, H. (2018) ‘Augmented and virtual reality in the language classroom: practical ideas’, Teaching English with Technology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 33–53.

Bressler, D. M. & Bodzin, A. M. (2013) ‘A mixed methods assessment of students’ flow experiences during a mobile augmented reality science game’, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 505–517. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12008

Brown, M., et al., (2020) 2020 Educause Horizon Report Teaching and Learning Edition, EDUCAUSE, Louisville, CO.

Chen, C. J. (2009) ‘Theoretical bases for using virtual reality in education’, Themes in Science and Technology Education, vol. 2, no. 1–2, pp. 71–90.

Cheng, K. H. & Tsai, C. C. (2013) ‘Affordances of augmented reality in science learning: suggestions for future research’, Journal of Science Education and Technology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 449–462. doi: 10.1007/s10956-012-9405-9

Christensen, C. (1997) The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Christensen, C. (2008) Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns, MacGraw Hill, New York.

Cuendet, S., et al., (2013) ‘Designing augmented reality for classroom’, Computers & Education, vol. 68, pp. 557–569. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.02.015

Dede, C. & Richards, J. (2017) ‘Strategic planning for R&D in immersive learning’, in Virtual, Augmented, and Mixed Realities in Education, Smart Computing and Intelligence, eds D. Liu et al., Springer, Newton, pp. 237–244.

Dunleavy, M., Dede, C. & Mitchell, R. (2009) ‘Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning’, Journal of Science Education and Technology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 7–22. doi: 10.1007/s10956-008-9119-1

Godwin-Jones, R. (2016) ‘Emerging technologies augmented reality and language learning: from annotated vocabulary to place-based mobile games’, Language Learning & Technology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 9–19.

Hayes, A, T., Hardin, S. E. & Hughes, C. E. (2013) ‘Perceived presence’s role on learning outcomes in a mixed reality classroom of simulated learners’, in Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. Systems and Applications, ed. R. Shumaker, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 142–151.

Ke, F., Lee, S. & Xu, X. (2016) ‘Teacher training in a mixed-reality integrated learning environment’, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 62, pp. 212–220. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.094

Klimova, A., Bilyatdinova, A. & Karsakov, A. (2018) ‘Existing teaching practices in augmented reality. 7th International Young Scientist Conference on Computational Science’, Procedia Computer Science, vol. 136, pp. 5–15. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2018.08.232

Klopfer, E. & Sheldon, J. (2010) ‘Augmenting your own reality: student authoring of science-based augmented reality games’, New Directions for Youth Development, vol. 2010, no. 128, pp. 85–94. doi: 10.1002/yd.378

Liarokapis, F. & Anderson, E. (2010) ‘Using augmented reality as a medium to assist teaching in higher education’, Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the European Association for Computer Graphics (Eurographics, 2010), Norrkoping, Sweden, pp. 9–16.

Lindgren, R. & Johnson-Glenberg, M. (2013) ‘Emboldened by embodiment: six precepts for research on embodied learning and mixed-reality’, Educational Researcher, vol. 42, pp. 445–452. doi: 10.3102/0013189X13511661

Liu, P. H. E. & Tsai, M. K. (2013) ‘Using augmented-reality-based mobile learning material in EFL English composition: an exploratory case study’, British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. E1–E4. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01302.x

Plunkett, K. (2019) ‘A simple and practical method for incorporating augmented reality into the classroom and laboratory’, Journal of Chemical Education, vol. 96, pp. 2628–2631. doi: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.9b00607

Quint, F., Sebastian, K. & Gorecky, D. (2015) ‘A mixed-reality learning environment. 2015 International Conference on Virtual and Augmented Reality in Education’, Procedia Computer Science, vol. 75, pp. 43–48. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.199

Richey, S. (2018, April) ‘Utilizing presence in augmented reality applications to improve learning outcomes’, Performance Improvement, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 10–18. doi: 10.1002/pfi.21773

Siegle, D. (2019, January) ‘Seeing is believing: using virtual and augmented reality to enhance student learning’, Gifted Child Today, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 46–52. doi: 10.1177/1076217518804854

Wang, Y. H. (2017) ‘Exploring the effectiveness of integrating augmented reality-based materials to support writing activities’, Computers & Education, vol. 113, pp. 162–176. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2017.04.013

Wojciechowski, R. & Cellary, W. (2013) ‘Evaluation of learners’ attitude toward learning in ARIES augmented reality environments’, Computers & Education, vol. 68, pp. 570–585. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.02.014

Wu, H. K., et al., (2013) ‘Current status, opportunities and challenges of augmented reality in education’, Computers & Education, vol. 62, pp. 41–49. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.10.024
How to Cite
Czerkawski B., & Berti M. (2021). Learning experience design for augmented reality. Research in Learning Technology, 29. https://doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v29.2429
Mobile Mixed Reality - Themed Collection