Engaging the control-value theory: a new era of student response systems and formative assessment to improve student achievement

  • Mary W. Paul Department of English, California State University, Fresno, CA, USA
  • Colleen Torgerson Kremen School of Education and Human Development, California State University, Fresno, CA, USA
  • Susan Tracz Kremen School of Education and Human Development, California State University, Fresno, CA, USA
  • Kimberly Coy Kremen School of Education and Human Development, California State University, Fresno, CA, USA
  • Juliet Wahleithner Kremen School of Education and Human Development, California State University, Fresno, CA, USA
Keywords: educational technology, student response systems, formative assessment, student achievement, mobile technology


The use of student response systems (SRS) in the form of polling and quizzing via multiple choice questions has been well documented in the literature (Caldwell 2007). This study addressed the gap in the literature and considered content-generating SRS, such as Socrative and Google Slides, during formative assessment activities in college composition courses. Content-generating SRS display student responses to formative assessment questions, and instructors are able to evaluate and adjust course material and feedback in real-time. Quantitative data measuring student perception using Likert-scale surveys and student achievement using essay scores were collected. The statistically significant results between the treatment and control groups for essay scores are objective measurements of student achievement and have implications for how to support both students and faculty in innovative curriculum design. Content-generating SRS allow for a more robust illustration of student understanding and can be adopted for larger lecture classes.


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How to Cite
Paul, M. W., Torgerson, C., Tracz, S., Coy, K., & Wahleithner, J. (2020). Engaging the control-value theory: a new era of student response systems and formative assessment to improve student achievement. Research in Learning Technology, 28. https://doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v28.2454
Original Research Articles