Introducing augmented reality in early childhood literacy learning

Keywords: augmented reality, rapid letter naming, motivation, literacy skills, Bayesian analysis

Abstract

Augmented reality (AR) as an emerging technology has gradually been incorporated into educational contexts; however, the cases that incorporate AR into early childhood contexts are underrepresented and especially scant in the literacy domain. Aiming to measure the impact of AR on early childhood learning and motivation in the literacy domain, this study brought an application into six pre-kindergarten classrooms by introducing three experimental classrooms to an AR centre while others engaged with a two-dimensional (2D) version of the same material. Bayesian analysis revealed that rapid letter naming rates grew for all children involved in the study. It increased by 6.28% among children in the experimental AR group and 3.35% in the control 2D group. Growth in rates of motivation was similar among experimental (11.5%) and control (10.9%) groups. These findings suggest that three-dimensional images of letters might help with rapid letter naming skills, and animations available in both versions may be the reason of increases in motivation. Teacher interviews presented positive views towards AR, and instructional implications were provided by teachers for incorporating the technology into early childhood classrooms.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References


Akçayır, M. & Akçayır, G. (2017) ‘Advantages and challenges associated with augmented reality for education: a systematic review of the literature’. Educational Research Review, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–11. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2016.11.002


Arens, A. K., et al., (2011) ‘The twofold multidimensionality of academic self-concept: domain specificity and separation between competence and affect components’, Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 103, no. 4, p. 970. doi: 10.1037/a0025047


Azuma, R., et al., (2001) ‘Recent advances in augmented reality’, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 34–47. doi: 10.1109/38.963459


Berhenke, A., et al., (2011) ‘Observed emotional and behavioral indicators of motivation predict school readiness in head start graduates’, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 430–441. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2011.04.001


Chang, F. & Burns, B. M. (2005) ‘Attention in preschoolers: associations with effortful control and motivation’, Child Development, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 247–263. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00842.x


Chapman, J. W. & Tunmer, W. E. (1995) ‘Development of young children’s reading self-concepts: an examination of emerging subcomponents and their relationship with reading achievement’, Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 87, no. 1, p. 154. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.87.1.154


Cheng, K. H. & Tsai, C. C. (2014) ‘Children and parents’ reading of an augmented reality picture book: analyses of behavioral patterns and cognitive attainment’, Computers & Education, vol. 72, pp. 302–312. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.12.003


Ciampa, K. (2016) ‘Motivating grade 1 children to read: exploring the role of choice, curiosity, and challenge in mobile ebooks’, Reading Psychology, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 665–705. doi: 10.1080/02702711.2015.1105337


Cornwall, A. (1992) ‘The relationship of phonological awareness, rapid naming, and verbal memory to severe reading and spelling disability’, Journal of Learning Disabilities, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 532–538. doi: 10.1177/002221949202500808


disruptED. (2020, June) ‘We bring learning to life! [online]’, Available at: https://disruptedx.com


Ehri, L.C. (2005) ‘Learning to read words: theory, findings, and issues’, Scientific Studies of Reading, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 167–188. doi: 10.1207/s1532799xssr0902_4


Gibson, W. & Brown, A. (2009) Working with Qualitative Data, Sage, Los Angeles, CA. doi: 10.4135/9780857029041


Flewitt, R., Messer, D. & Kucirkova, N. (2015) ‘New directions for early literacy in a digital age: the iPad’, Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 298–310. doi: 10.1177/1468798414533560


Gecu-Parmaksiz, Z. & Delialioğlu, Ö. (2018) ‘The effect of augmented reality activities on improving preschool children’s spatial skills’, Interactive Learning Environments, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1–14. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2018.1546747


Gudoniene, D. & Rutkauskiene, D. (2019) ‘Virtual and augmented reality in education’, Baltic Journal of Modern Computing, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 293–300. doi: 10.22364/bjmc.2019.7.2.07


Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2003) The Constructivist Teacher: Facilitating Problem Based Learning, Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL [online]. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.112.4497&rep=rep1&type=pdf


Hickey, D. T., Moore, A. L. & Pellegrino, J. W. (2001) ‘The motivational and academic consequences of elementary mathematics environments: do constructivist innovations and reforms make a difference?’, American Educational Research Journal, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 611–652. doi: 10.3102/00028312038003611


Ho, S. C., et al., (2017) ‘To activate English learning: listen and speak in real life context with an AR featured u-learning system’, Journal of Educational Technology & Society, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 176–187.


Hornecker, E. & Dünser, A. (2009) ‘Of pages and paddles: children’s expectations and mistaken interactions with physical–digital tools’, Interacting with Computers, vol. 21, nos. 1–2, pp. 95–107. doi: 10.1016/j.intcom.2008.10.007


Ibáñez, M. B. & Delgado-Kloos, C. (2018) ‘Augmented reality for STEM learning: a systematic review’, Computers & Education, vol. 123, pp. 109–123. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2018.05.002


Jackman, H., Beaver, N. & Wyatt, S. (2014) Early Education Curriculum: A Child’s Connection to the World, 6th edn, Cengage Learning, Stanford, CA.


Kaya, O. S. & Bicen, H. (2019) ‘Study of augmented reality applications use in education and its effect on the academic performance’, International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 25–36. doi: 10.4018/IJDET.2019070102


Kostelnik, M. J., et al., (2015) Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum: Best Practices in Early Childhood Education, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.


Kruschke, J. K. (2013) ‘Bayesian estimation supersedes the t test’, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, vol. 142, no. 2, p. 573. doi: 10.1037/a0029146


Lorusso, M., et al., (2018) ‘Giok the alien: an AR-based integrated system for the empowerment of problem-solving, pragmatic, and social skills in pre-school children’, Sensors, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 23–68. doi: 10.3390/s18072368


Metin, Ş. (2017) ‘Investigation of the practices in learning centers of pre-school education institutes’, Turkish Journal of Education, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–16. doi: 10.19128/turje.267357


Nie, Y. & Lau, S. (2010) ‘Differential relations of constructivist and didactic instruction to students’ cognition, motivation, and achievement’, Learning and Instruction, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 411–423. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.04.002


Patrick, H., Mantzicopoulos, P. & Samarapungavan, A. (2009) ‘Motivation for learning science in kindergarten: is there a gender gap and does integrated inquiry and literacy instruction make a difference’, Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 166–191. doi: 10.1002/tea.20276


Pellegrino, A. M. (2007) How Can Learning Centers Be Used to Support Classroom Instruction and Promote Critical Thinking in a Kindergarten Classroom? Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ.


Peterson, R. A. (1994) ‘A meta-analysis of Cronbach’s coefficient alpha’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 381–391. doi: 10.1086/209405


Poskiparta, E., et al., (2003) ‘Motivational-emotional vulnerability and difficulties in learning to read and spell’, British Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 187–206. doi: 10.1348/00070990360626930


Roberts, T. A. & Sadler, C. D. (2019) ‘Letter sound characters and imaginary narratives: can they enhance motivation and letter sound learning?’, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 46, pp. 97–111. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2018.04.002


Roberts, T. A., Vadasy, P. F. & Sanders, E. A. (2019) ‘Preschoolers’ alphabet learning: cognitive, teaching sequence, and English proficiency influences’, Reading Research Quarterly, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 413–437. doi: 10.1002/rrq.242


Sahin, N. & Ozcan, M. F. (2019) ‘Effects of augmented reality in teaching old Turkish language mementoes on student achievement and motivation’, Contemporary Educational Technology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 198–213. doi: 10.30935/cet.554501


Sirakaya, M. & Alsancak Sirakaya, D. (2018) ‘Trends in educational augmented reality studies: a systematic review’, Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 60–74. doi: 10.17220/mojet.2018.02.005


Sommerauer, P. & Müller, O. (2014) ‘Augmented reality in informal learning environments: a field experiment in a mathematics exhibition’, Computers & Education, vol. 79, pp. 59–68. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.07.013


Stipek, D., et al., (1995) ‘Effects of different instructional approaches on young children’s achievement and motivation’, Child Development, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 209–223. doi: 10.2307/1131201


Stipek, D. J., et al., (1998) ‘Good beginnings: what difference does the program make in preparing young children for school?’, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 41–66. doi: 10.1016/S0193-3973(99)80027-6


Stotz, M. & Columba, L. (2018) ‘Using augmented reality to teach subitizing with preschool students’, Journal of Interactive Learning Research, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 545–577.


Treiman, R., Stothard, S. E. & Snowling, M. J. (2019) ‘Knowledge of letter sounds in children from England’, Applied Psycholinguistics, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1299–1311. doi: 10.1017/S0142716419000274


Tynjala, P. (1999) ‘Towards expert knowledge? A comparison between a constructivist and a traditional learning environment in the university’, International Journal of Educational Research, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 357–442. doi: 10.1016/S0883-0355(99)00012-9


UTHealth. (2018, May) CIRCLE Progress Monitoring System (PreK) [online]. Available at: https://cliengage.org/public/tools/assessment/circle-progress-monitoring/


Uygur, M., Yelken, T. Y. & Akay, C. (2018) ’Analyzing the views of pre-service teachers on the use of augmented reality applications in education’, European Journal of Educational Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 849–860. doi: 10.12973/eu-jer.7.4.849


Wang, L., Lee, H. & Ju, D. Y. (2019) ’Impact of digital content on young children’s reading interest and concentration for books’, Behavior & Information Technology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 1–8. doi: 10.1080/0144929X.2018.1502807


Wei, X., et al., (2015) ‘Teaching based on augmented reality for a technical creative design course’, Computers & Education, vol. 81, pp. 221–234. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.10.017


Wilson, K. M. & Trainin, G. (2007) ‘First-grade students’ motivation and achievement for reading, writing, and spelling’, Reading Psychology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 257–282. doi: 10.1080/02702710601186464


Wise, A. F. & Jung, Y. (2019) ‘Teaching with analytics: towards a situated model of instructional decision-making’, Journal of Learning Analytics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 53–69. doi: 10.18608/jla.2019.62.4


Yilmaz, R. M. (2016) ‘Educational magic toys developed with augmented reality technology for early childhood education’, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 54, pp. 240–248. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.040


Yilmaz, R. M., Kucuk, S. & Goktas, Y. (2017) ‘Are augmented reality picture books magic or real for preschool children aged five to six?’, British Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 824–841. doi: 10.1111/bjet.12452


Yuliono, T. & Rintayati, P. (2018) ‘The promising roles of augmented reality in educational setting: a review of the literature’, International Journal of Educational Methodology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 125–132. doi: 10.12973/ijem.4.3.125
Published
2021-02-12
How to Cite
Pan, Z., López, M., Li, C., & Liu, M. (2021). Introducing augmented reality in early childhood literacy learning. Research in Learning Technology, 29. https://doi.org/10.25304/rlt.v29.2539
Section
Original Research Articles